Diabetes : Diabetes And Diabetes

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Diabetes is a metabolic disease in which the body’s inability to produce any or enough of the hormone insulin causes elevated levels of glucose in the blood. There are different types of diabetes; Diabetes Mellitus Type I, Diabetes Mellitus Type II, Gestational Diabetes, and Diabetes Insipidus. The type of diabetes you are diagnosed with is characterized by the way the body produces insulin and how the body responds. According to the CDC 2014 Statistics Report, at present 29.1 million people in the United States have diabetes of 8.1 million of those people are undiagnosed. The ethnic groups showing the most prevalence of diabetes are Hispanics, Non-Hispanic Blacks, and Native American. The most common symptoms of diabetes are…show more content…
(Hermanns-Le, Scheen, & Pierard, 2014, p. 200) As our cells fail to respond to insulin, the beta cells of the pancreas produce more insulin and trigger the liver to produce more glucose to restore glycemic control. This compensational mechanism will eventually be unable to keep up with the body’s demands leading to elevated glucose levels in circulation. Eventually, the high demand of pancreatic beta cells to produce insulin will not be able to keep up and insulin production will become insufficient, lessening the uptake of glucose. This now opens the path to Type II Diabetes Mellitus. (Thoenes, 2012, p. 621)
Insulin resistance eventually will lead to compensatory hyperinsulinemia. When serum insulin levels become elevated, there is a more dynamic effect on cell growth. This occurs through the binding and activation of insulin-like growth factor (IGFR) receptors in the peripheral tissues. (Hermanns-Le, Scheen, & Pierard, 2014, pp. 200-201) Research suggests the elevated binding rate of insulin to IGFR causes cell growth and boosts proliferation of the epidermal and dermal cells, keratinocytes and fibroblasts respectively. (Thoenes, 2012, p. 621) Keratinocytes make up 95% of the top layer, epidermis, of the skin. They produce keratin, a protein, which gives the skin its suppleness, durability and waterproofs the surface. Fibroblasts are dermal cells which are
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