Do You Have ADHD? Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most researched psychiatric disease, but it is a disease we cannot confidently explain what the true cause is. “In children, ADHD has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric condition worldwide.” (Bailey,1) According to a news report prepared by USA Today over the past five years, the use of ADHD medications have increased 40% totaling 39.5 million individual prescriptions ("New findings," 2009). That goes to show a huge increase in prescriptions and the disease being diagnosed. Many people argue that ADHD is part of normal childhood and that the disease is fictional. While the question regarding the validity of ADHD is surrounded by controversy, scientific and …show more content…
ADHD can be categorized in one of three groups that being; Inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, or both of them combined. In order to be diagnosed with inattention disorder you must have six or more symptoms out of the nine to be present for at least six months and present by the age of seven. It also has to be to the point where the symptoms are so bad and consistent that it becomes disruptive or inappropriate for the development as specified in the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) manual’s criteria. (Brown & Rickel 2.) The nine symptoms include; Not paying close attention to details and careless mistakes, trouble keeping attention, not listening when spoken to, not following instructions, failing to finish tasks even simples ones such as homework or chores, being unorganized, avoiding complicated or tedious tasks, misplacing things often, being easily distracted and forgetful. To be diagnosed with hyperactivity disorder a child must meet six or more of the following symptoms as well, and it has to be present for more than six months by age seven. Those symptoms include; fidgety with hands and feet, gets up from their seat when they are not supposed to, runs around when it is inappropriate, trouble playing quietly, often on the go as if they are run by a motor, talks excessively, and have trouble waiting their turn. In order to be diagnosed with both you have
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysGet Access
First step to understanding this disorder is to understand how it is diagnosed and what criteria is required. There are 18 possible symptoms for ADHD that are divided into two categories, inattentive and hyperactivity/impulsive (Barkley 1997). In order to be diagnosed with ADHD an individual must show at least 6 symptoms in one category for 6 months (Barkley 1997). Depending on what category the symptoms were in the child would also be assigned to a subtype, either: predominantly inattentive or predominantly hyperactive/impulsive; but if the individual met criteria for both inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive then the child would be diagnoses with ADHD combined (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 2013). Some of the symptoms that fall under the inattentive subtype are inability to stay focused on tasks (i.e. during lectures, conversations,
The legitimacy of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has been a controversial topic since it’s recognition as a part of the DSM-III, although there is copious research proving how many children are affected by this disorder. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, ADHD may affect around 3-5 percent of children. Psychiatrist Sami Timimi and psychologist Nick Radcliffe believe that ADHD does not exist and that the rapid increase of children taking stimulant medication to control it since 1996 is astonishing. Timimi and Radcliffe assert that it is a disorder made up by Western culture in order to explain away normal behavior in adolescents. They claim that normal adolescent behavior is viewed as unacceptable in today’s self-indulgent society. There have been millions of dollars and countless hours spent funding research about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, how it affects children, and what is the cause of ADHD.
Inattention is one of the distinguishable traits of ADHD (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). A child suffering from the symptoms of inattention in ADHD would probably lag behind schoolwork, have problems with communicating, and would struggle with cognitive activities like reading and comprehension. APA listed a total of 9 symptoms that are crucial to identifying ADHD in children (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Following is the list of these symptoms and their brief explanation:
The symptoms can often start during the early ages of a child’s life and continue on into adulthood, but symptoms do not always show at a young age(“Treatment”). Some symptoms for inattention include not being able to keep focus during conversations, lectures, or lengthy reading, not listening when one is directly spoken to, not following through with tasks such as school work, getting easily sidetracked, forgetting things throughout the day, and having problems organizing things(“NIMH”). Some signs of hyperactivity could include fidgeting in their seats, talking non stop, blurting out randomly, interrupting in conversations, and constantly being on the go(“NIMH”). Some people could show more symptoms of inattention, and some could show more of hyperactivity, it just depends. ADHD can be mistaken for emotional or disciplinary problems, and also for other disorders that have similar
According to the DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) there are three main types of ADHD. These types are Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder with predominance in inattentiveness, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder with predominance in hyperactivity and impulsiveness, and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder with a combination of both hyperactivity and inattentiveness. There are certain criteria that must be met before a diagnosis can be made to attribute ADHD to the behavior of anyone.
Over the past couple of decades there has been a huge increase in the diagnosis and prescriptions given out for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. According to a news report done by USA Today over the past five years use of ADHD medications have risen 40% totaling 39.5 million individual prescriptions ("New findings," 2009). When statistics like this are seen it is only normal for someone to ask questions. People are becoming curious about the legitimacy of the disorder, and whether or not the treatments being given to individuals are appropriate. The argument seems to be strong on both sides of the fence, but the extensive research done on ADHD leaves it hard for one to believe that it is a made up disorder.
affects 3 to 5 percent of all children, and it is likely to occur two to three
The research also found that in 2011, only 3.1 percent of children diagnosed with ADHD taking medication to treat the condition. According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIH), inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity are the key that are more severe and occur most often in children diagnosed with this disorder (ADHD). Among the most common symptoms of inattention, cited easily are, distraction, forget things, change frequently from one activity to another and having difficulty concentrating. Also, these children tend to get bored with a task after only a few minutes, unless it is a pleasurable activity, or learning something new about completing tasks. In the case of children with symptoms of hyperactivity, often restless, talk endlessly, tend to move from one place to another and have difficulty sitting and staying still for meals and school (Grady, pp.
It is estimated that 3-5% of school-aged kids in the USA suffer from ADHD. It is also 3-5 times more likely to affect a boy then a girl, though in adults that ratio drops closer to 2 males to even 1 female. Most children grow out of the disorder as they age and gain more self control. However, anywhere between 30-80% of children that suffer from ADHD, will continue to have symptoms as an adult. Because the cause is still unknown, diagnosis can be difficult. Most children will display some symptoms of ADHD at some point in their childhood, but at low levels. Determining what is “normal” inattention is where the problem with diagnosis lies. Psychiatrists and other medical professionals use the criteria from the DSM-IV-TR to determine the presence of the disorder. To receive an ADHD diagnosis a child must display at least six of the symptoms of inattention or six or more symptoms of a combined hyperactivity and impulsiveness. The symptoms must occur before the child turns seven , must be present in a minimum of two different social environments (e.g. in the home, at school), must affect the child for at least six months, and have no traces to any other developmental or mental disorder. The symptoms on the
ADHD symptoms can be hard to distinguish from the impulsivity, inattentiveness and active behavior that is typical for kids under the age of four but many parents have reported these characteristics as early as toddler years. In making the diagnosis, children should have six or more symptoms of the disorder present; adolescents 17 and older and adults should have at least five of the symptoms present. The DSM-5 lists three presentations of ADHD—predominantly inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive and combined. The symptoms for each are adapted and summarized below. ADHD predominantly inattentive presentation characteristics include fails to give close attention to details or makes certain careless mistakes; has difficulty sustaining attention with the organization; and/or does not appear to listen, follow through with instructions, and/or loses things. ADHD predominantly hyperactive-impulsive is indicated by fidgets or squirms in chair; difficulty remaining seated, being quiet, waiting and taking turns, blurts out and/or interrupts or intrudes upon others; runs about or climbs excessively (children) or extreme restlessness (adults); and/or acts as if driven by a motor or adults will often feel inside as if they are driven by a motor, talks excessively. ADHD combined presentation may be indicated when individual meets the criteria for both inattention and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD presentations.
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is a common mental disorder whose definition continues to change. Most clinicians make a diagnosis off of a list of symptoms in three categories: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. There are three different subtypes of ADHD: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type if both the inattentive criteria and the hyperactive/impulsive criteria have been present for the past six months; Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Type if the inattention criteria are met but the hyperactive/impulsive criteria has not been present for the past six months; and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Hyperactive/Impulsive
ADHD is an abbreviation for attention deficit/hyper activity disorder. It is commonly referred to as a psychiatric disorder in need of therapy. The origination of the disease is in the neuro-physiological brain construct, and the main cause of the disorder is considered to be genetic (Wilson, 2012). Many children with ADHD struggle with impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention (Unnever, Cullen, & Pratt, 2003). According to McNamara, Vervaeke, and Willoughby (2008), “attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder among children and adolescents. It affects between 3% and 5% of school age children” (p. 38). In a
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder also most commonly known as ADHD is one of the most common disorders among children and young adults. It is not only the most common but is on the rise in the United States over the past decade. Many people turn to the internet to find answers on such a disorder as ADHD. However, one has to be careful in what they read, because some websites are not accurate and have lots of bias towards one thing or another dealing with the subject of ADHD. Everyday Health’s webpage on ADHD is a very informative source and well put together by using authority, coverage and objectivity.
Actually, hyperactivity is not one particular condition: it is “a set of behaviors” such as excessive restlessness and short attention span that are quantitatively and qualitatively different from those children of the same sex, mental age, and socioeconomic status (Gutskey, T.R. 1991).
The primary features of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder include inattention and hyperactive-impulsive behavior. ADHD symptoms start before age 12, and in some children, they're noticeable as early as 3 years of age. ADHD symptoms can be mild, moderate or severe, and they may continue into adulthood.