Essay On Inertia

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As the RES penetration continue to grow in the power grid system, several sources for inertia to cover up the decrease in synchronous generator inertia is discussed.
In this thesis we are going to discuss how some types of storage systems can work out to be very similar to synchronous inertia response (mainly depends on utilizing time), these are the storage systems technologies that are most applicable in inertia generating/Emulating application from the thesis point of view as other storage technologies are either not technologically mature enough or they have expansion capabilities limitations due to environmental and geographical reasons such as pumped hydro.
We can generate synthetic inertia from some types of decoupled RES such as
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Kinetic energy is extracted by a generator during discharge which is driven by the inertia of the flywheel resulting in the deceleration of the flywheel. flywheels properties are:
Very high cycle life
\item Very high power density
\item Average energy density
\item Very high self-discharge rate
\item High number of charging-discharging cycles and only short storing periods (neither charging nor discharging)
\item They absorb energy during the regenerative braking phases and feed power back during acceleration phases
And they have the below parameters:
Round-trip efficiency equals to 80\% - 95\%, Depth of discharge equals to 75\%, Self-discharge equals to 5 to 15\%/hour, Power installation cost equals to 300 \EUR/kW, Energy installation cost (high speed flywheel) equals to 1,000 \EUR/kWh, Deployment time is about 10 ms \cite{ISEA}.
This makes flywheel very suitable for high power short period application as in emulating inertia.
Examining the power density and energy density compared to batteries we will find a much higher cycle life and power density capabilities and a much lower energy density.
It is acceptable to say that comparing power density and energy density super capacitors is located between classical capacitors and batteries.
Important parameters for our study: Round-trip efficiency equals to 90\% - 94\%, Depth of discharge equals to 75\%,
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