Examples Of Expectancy Theory

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EXPECTANCY THEORY
The Expectancy Theory as explained by Vroom was brought about to explain and separate effort (arising from motivation), outcomes and performance. This is because other theories i.e. by Maslow and Herzberg only explain the relationship between needs and the required effort to fulfill them.
With Vroom’s Expectancy Theory, it is assumed that behavior arises from choices whose sole purpose is to obtain maximum pleasure and lowest pain. Vroom therefore realized that employees’ performances are based on individual factors that include personality, knowledge and skills, experience and other abilities. He further explains that performance, motivation and effort are directly linked through variables i.e. Instrumentality, Expectancy and Valence.
1. Instrumentality; this is the belief that if someone performs well, a valued outcome will arise. It means
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2. Expectancy; this is a belief that increased or improved efforts lead to improved performance. This is affected by;
• Having the required resources e.g. time and raw materials
• Being with the right skills for a particular job
• Having the correct support for the job to be done e.g. supervisory support or the right job information
3. Valence; the importance one places on the expected outcome is called valence. A good example of valence is that if an individual is motivated by money; he must not value other offers requiring time offs.
All the three elements are interrelated and none should be chosen over another. I.e.
• E>P expectancy: assessment of the probability that efforts lead to required performance
• P>O expectancy: assessment of the probability that successful performance leads to required outcomes
The Theory of Expectancy is based on perceptions. This means that even if an employer provides all that is required for motivation and it works with the majority in the organization, some employees will still feel

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