Pathophysiology of brucellosis Brucellae are aerobic gram-negative coccobacilli that possess a unique ability to invade both phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells and to survive in the intracellular environment by finding ways to avoid the immune system. This ability helps explain why brucellosis is a systemic disease and can involve almost every organ system. Brucella can gain entry into the human body through breaks in the skin, mucous membranes, conjunctivae, and respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) tracts. Sexual transmission has not been convincingly documented. Ingestion usually occurs by way of unpasteurized milk; meat products often have a low bacterial load. In the United States, percutaneous needlestick exposure, conjunctival exposure
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The disease was caused by rats and rat fleas but, also from human to human by breathing the same air. Scientists know that the bacillus travels from person to person, through
There are only a few ways to become infected with the bacteria, being bitten by an infected flea or coming in contact with an infected animal's bodily tissues or fluids. Whether a person has contracted the bacterium or not can
The bacteria can be spread easily through close contact with someone who has the infection, such as through direct physical contact, or by sharing towels or flannels.
This bacterium has developed a unique way to evade the human immune system and starts evading right from moment the bite occurs. It has learned to survive in the human body and sometimes even heavy doses of medicines fail to generate results against the bacteria.
The spread of the BB bacteria into the central nervous system varies in incidence and speed between individuals, but when it does happen the spirochaetes (bacteria that have a distinctive spiral shape and under magnification look like little telephone cords or corkscrews) may
7. Text to Text Connection: There are different advertisements that tell you to watch what you eat. There are a lot of organic foods that people are switching too so they can avoid eating cattle. Tuberculosis can spread through your food, air, via infected animals.
The highly contagious B. pertussis is a strictly aerobic gram-negative coccobacillus that grows best between 35-37 ºC, and is transmitted through inhalation of aerosol droplets. It is one of ten known Bordetella species, and accounts for 50 million cases annually, in which 300,000 of them result in death. (1-3)
* You could get it through a cut or wound that has broken the skin, one of the main functions of the skin is to act as a barrier against any infection. Anything that penetrates the skin or for that matter the mucous membrane that lines the mouth or nose provides a route for infection to enter. This would be either bites, scratches, puncture wounds by needles this is an increase the risk of infection.
Infection can occur when open skin or wounds come into contact with foreign bodies carrying C.tetani spores such as soil. The typical example is stepping on a rusty metal contaminated with soil, dust, or feces. Because C. tetani is an indigenous intestinal flora of humans and animals, spores under anaerobic conditions in the wound, will germinate to vegetative C. tetani cells which produce the exotoxin in vivo (in the living body of a plant or animal). Person to person does not occur, but it’s infectious as acquired through environmental exposure. (Burton’s Microbiology for the Health Sciences 2011 P248 &
The pathogen passes through the correct entry site like eyes, mouth, and other mucous membranes or skin pierced or broken by cuts, abrasions, bites and sharp objects.
This ability provides an explanation to why Brucella is a systemic infection, affecting nearly all organs, similar to sepsis. Brucella can gain entry into the body through breaks in the skin, mucosal membranes, respiratory tract, or gastrointestinal tract. Once in the blood stream, organisms race to become intracellular pathogens within circulating polymorphonuclear cells and macrophages. LPS is a viracl factor for this particular organism and plays a roll in intracellular survival because of guanine and adenine monophosphate production. Brucella are extremely poor inducers of the immune system’s inflammatory response and does not activate the complement system, however they do inhibit programmed cell death. Brucella are then transported to the lymphatic system and has the potential to replicate, as well as other vital organs of the host. When Brucella replicates in the ER, they are released with the help of hemolysin and induce cell necrosis. Laboratory acquired brucellosis is fairly common due to the improper handling of
The scientific name of the bacterium that infected Matthew was called Chromobacterium violaceum, which was known as a particular flesh-eating bacteria. This bacterium in the environment is fairly common itself; however, the infections that is caused by the bacterium is uncommon. Furthermore, this flesh-eating bacteria is being present in many natural open spaces, such as large bodies of waters throughout the south-eastern region of the United States. Numerous people had swam in Hope Mills Lake where there is Chromobacterium violaceum. There are some people who tend to swim in this lake without know that there is a flesh-eating bacteria in the water. Not to mention, most people do not receive this infection. In addition, those people who has
Several Mycobacterium species are zoonotic with M. marinum being the most commonly recovered from skin lesions in humans. Other species that can infect humans include M. fortuitum, M. intracellulare, M. kansasii and M. chelonae. M. fortuitum was previously cultured from patients with pulmonary disease and local abscesses while M. chelonae as isolated from heterography heart-valve transplants and lesions have been found in synovial fluid and muscle. Transmission to humans occur from contact with contaminated water sources or infected fish through an entry point such as breaks in skin. Severity of human infection depends on the immune status hence, it primarily a concern in immunocompromised individuals. Generally found in aquaria, infections can occur when cleaning or maintenance of