For Proteins, Form Shapes Function Essay

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Proteins are fundamental components of all living cells that participate in some of the most important biological processes, including cell growth and maintenance, movement and defense. They are complex molecules that consist of one or more chains of amino-acids, have distinct three-dimensional shapes and whose structure and structural dynamics directly influence their specific function.
Most proteins have a primary, secondary and tertiary structure, but some of them, like hemoglobin, also have a quaternary structure. The primary structure of a protein is represented by the ordered succession of its amino acids held together by covalent bonds. While in nature amino acids may possess either the D or L configuration, amino acids within
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They also preserve the bond angles and the planar configuration of the peptide bond, as well as keep atoms from coming together so closely that they repel each other through Van der Waal's interactions.
A protein’s tertiary structure, the compact, biologically active and most stable form of the protein, results from further folding of the amino acid chain. The environment in which a protein is synthesized and allowed to folded is a significant determinant of its final shape. If the tertiary structure of a protein is disrupted, the protein is said to be denatured, and it loses its activity. Based on their tertiary structure, proteins can be classified as globular, fibrous and membrane proteins. Globular proteins participate in sophisticated processes such as enzyme-mediated catalysis, transport of molecules, signal transduction, defense and regulation.
In order to function properly, these proteins need to be compact, soluble and able to form active sites. Proteins of the cytosol need a dense enough structure in order to be able to coexist alongside other components of the cytosol, yet still retain their ability to diffuse freely. In addition to being highly crowded, the environment of cytosolic proteins is also aqueous, which requires them to be water-soluble, so as to prevent aggregation and sedimentation. Most of the protein functions involve molecular
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