Gender And Smoking Essay

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The study looked at the association between gender and smoking as well as stress and smoking. Subjects were thirty-five male and thirty-two female university students who were either smokers or non-smokers. All subjects completed the Kanner (1981) daily hassles questionnaire to determine whether they were stressed or not. A significant association between gender and smoking frequency was found (p=0.017), in which men were more likely to smoke than women. No significant association was found between stress and smoking frequency (p=0.615). These findings have implications for understanding the impact of gender on smoking initiation, maintenance, and relapse.
Smoking is a dangerous habit, its harmful effects only widely acknowledged …show more content…

Initially we had decided to simply ask our participants whether they were stressed or not. However we realised this was too subjective of a method, and therefore decided to use the Kanner (1981) daily hassles questionnaire to more objectively operationalise levels of …show more content…

Chi-square was undertaken firstly because our data was not normally distributed when a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was conducted, and the samples did not show homogeneity of variance when a Levene’s test was conducted. Furthermore, we wanted to find out whether there was an association between two categorical variables (gender and smoking, and stress and smoking). Our groups are independent, and our data is categorical.
We determined whether participants were stressed or not based on the midway score of the average. After collecting all our data we determined that the midway score was 61.37, therefore participants who scored above this were stressed, while participants who scored below were not stressed. This was how we converted the daily hassles score into categorical

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