The Grammar Translation Method
The Grammar translation method, or classical method started when people wanted to read literature written in the target language. Its focus was on grammatical rules, the memorization of vocabulary and of various declensions and conjugations, translations of texts, doing written exercises.
Rules of grammar, not the language itself, are all important. Verb declensions are set out tables, vocabulary lists to be learned, leading to translation from mother tongue into target language and vice-versa. There is little or no attention to pronunciation.
The learner would acquire the skill of translating in writing from L2 to L1 and vice versa. Speaking the foreign language will play a very little part in the …show more content…
The Audiolingual Method is based on:
Speaking and listening competence preceded reading and writing competence.
The development of language skills is a matter of habit.
Students practice particular patterns of language through structured dialogue and drill until response is automatic.
The printed word must be kept away from the second language learner as long as possible. There is dependence on imitation, memorization of set phrases, and overlearning. Structures are sequenced by means of contrastive analysis taught one at a time. Structural patterns are taught using repetitive drills. There is little or no grammatical explanation. Grammar is inductive Great importance is attached to pronunciation.. Success responses are immediately reinforced.
Very little use of the mother tongue by teacher is permitted
Dialogues are the basic form of materials in the Audiolingual method. The dialogue serves three functions: a) illustrates the target structure; b) illustrates the situation the structure may be used; c) provides cultural information for language use wherever possible.
In this method, oral interaction was emphasized in pattern drills, and conversation practices. Desuggestopedia
The suggestive-desuggestive process allows students to go beyond previously held beliefs and self-limiting
Cunningham (2003) remarks “While there may indeed be some negative effects from using translation,… there is a place in the learning environment for translation. With careful application aimed at specific goals and situations, translation can contribute to the students' acquisition of the target language, at all levels.” According to this, there are different situations in which students are more comfortable by using L1. While there are clear advantages on the communicative approach, not every student feels on a “safety” environment to apply their L2 knowledge, and by giving them the chance to have a transition from both languages, they feel that they have something to more familiar – native language – to rely
English and it will help them formulate the English language and will into help them to speak in
To address Luisa’s speaking in academic and social contexts, the English class must provide Luisa with consistent opportunities to hear English being spoken fluently. To promote fluent speaking in a second language, interaction is also key to learning. During the time when the ELL student is unable or limited in producing language, the instructor must create an environment where the ELL is able to build receptive language through repetition, gestures, and choral reading. One strategy to assist in developing the speaking component for Luisa is Scripting. Scripting is a strategy that prepares the ELL with sample language interactions or situational dialogues appropriate for upcoming events. These dialogues are known as scripts and they are presented and practiced with the ELL prior to the student encountering the situation in which the script will be used. The use of Scripting will complement the English class structure and the nature of the academic content as the class inherently focus on the productive and receptive language skills. As students encounter literature and poetry, the teacher can easily model fluent English during
Language is the primary way to communicate, learn and express identity. Some language learners are successful by virtue of their sheer determination, hard work and diligence. However, there are other crucial factors influencing success that are largely beyond the control of learners. ' 'Second language is any language other than the learner 's native language or mother tongue ' '(Mitchell pg 5). To be successful in second language acquisition, there are various factors which act as barrier in the process of learning English as a second language.
Since, the second language is an additional language after we acquire the first language, the L2 learning process can be influenced by the L1 learning process This essay will demonstrate the similarities and differences in L1 and L2 acquisition by discussing various theories. Then, draw a conclusion based on the evidence provided and my own experience.
Oral communication for English language learners can be easier than learning how to read and write. English language learner’s students might have a fear of speaking however it is the teacher’s responsibility to make the student’s feel comfortable in speaking the English language. When English language learners learn the English language then they will be able to communicate with people and in the classroom. In the article An Urgent Challenge: Enhancing Academic Speaking Opportunities for English Learners, it was mentioned that in order to engage English language learner students in a conversation, a teacher must have to model and clearly teach them how to engage in a conversation (Wilson, Fang, Rollins, & Valadez, 2016, P. 53). This is what
Also, how much the student perceives the need of the new language can have a great impact on how willing they are to learn it. In terms of his own advancement in perhaps obtaining a job where it may be necessary to know English, or meeting some other goal, which is
The Grammar Translation method is an old method of teaching a foreign language, it was used to teach classical languages such as Latin and Greek, that’s why it was called “the classical way” to teach a language, this method’s main purpose was to learn and value a language literature, it was also strongly believed that this using this way in teaching would develop the learners’ native language in speaking and writing as the ability of communication using the language learned wasn’t a target for using this method of teaching. As it was mentioned earlier this way was called “the classical way”, so was the roles of students, teachers and the nature of interaction between them either teacher-student interaction or student-student in this method they were traditional and classical, the teacher is the authority in the classroom and the learners follow whatever this authority says or does, they were mainly asked to translate a passage or a piece of reading from a language to another language, they were taught grammar rules and were asked to memorize them to give examples of these rules and for vocabulary learning they get taught words that are similar from the native language to the language learned, as for the nature of interaction inside the classroom is mostly about teacher- student interaction and student-student interaction is rarely used or initiated. The skills that that this method is aiming to enhance and develop are reading and writing because as it was mentioned earlier that the main purpose of this method is to understand and learn literature of the language learned, moreover the native language is frequently used in a grammar translation method class as it is clearly used by students to translate the foreign language to their language and vice versa. The evaluation or the assessment of what have been taught in this method is mostly done in
As one of the most important part in English language, grammar gets attention from many teachers around the world. Many researchers have even debated about almost every single thing of it. Meanwhile, for the learners, learning grammar often means they have to learn the rules and patterns of grammar and also have an intellectual knowledge of grammar. Many teachers believe that learning grammar intensively can help the learners build their knowledge, so that they will be able to use the language eventually. Unfortunately, in terms of learners’ success with languages, grammar has been seen to be a quite huge problem. The English grammar acquisition does not come naturally. The learners have to go to school to learn it, dig it deeper, and know every part of it in order to be able to use it well. Many learners have difficulty doing so, few retain the knowledge for long, and hardly anyone finds it very exciting. (Tabbert, 1984: p. 39). Thus, it can be said that by identifying such
Larsen-Freeman (2001) as cited in Mart (2013), describes grammar as a system of meaningful structures and patterns that are governed by particular pragmatic constraints. This clearly indicates that grammar plays a crucial role in learning the target language. Grammar instruction is one of the most difficult issues that people have encountered in language learning and teaching. Therefore, the best way to overcome this issue is by
I started learning English as a second language when I was in first intermediate. I still remember my first classes and my first teachers. I remember that my teachers changed frequently in the first year but all of them have much in common. All of them used grammar translation method. They used to write bilingual lists of words on board, then we, as students, were asked to copy these lists and memorize them by heart. All teaching concentrated on reading and writing skills, but there were no activities concentrating on speaking or listening. In addition, grammar rules were taught in that stage of learning the language as mathematics equations, and we were asked to memorize the rules as we
The goal of this method is to help the students to be able to communicate in the target language. In order to achieve this purpose, the Audio-Lingual Method contains the following characteristics. Firstly, contextualized dialogs are utilized to present new vocabulary and structures in class. Secondly, the conversations are learned through drills which are considered as an integral part of the Audio-Lingual Method. In my own teaching, backward build-up drill, repetition drill and substitution drill contribute importantly the success of students’ learning. Next, grammar rules are induced from examples. By this approach, students personalize and use the grammatical points naturally like the way they acquire the native language. Based on above features, it is believed that the Audio-Lingual Method has a part in the communicative development of students in the target language.
In order to learn a foreign language, you need to study its grammar, the structural rules of a language. Most of the time, grammar is a complicated subject to understand, to learn, and to use correctly. To make things even more complicated, you will need to memorize the exceptions to the grammar rules you learn.