Haptic Technology

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ABSTRACT “HAPTICS”-- a technology that adds the sense of touch to virtual environment .Haptic interfaces allow the user to feel as well as to see virtual objects on a computer, and so we can give an illusion of touching surfaces, shaping virtual clay or moving objects around. The sensation of touch is the brain’s most effective learning mechanism --more effective than seeing or hearing—which is why the new technology holds so much promise as a teaching tool. Haptic technology is like exploring the virtual world with a stick. If you push the stick into a virtual balloon push back .The computer communicates sensations through a haptic interface –a
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Moreover, haptic rendering algorithms ensure that the haptic device correctly renders such forces on the human operator.

1.)Collision-detection algorithms detect collisions between objects and avatars in the virtual environment and yield information about where, when, and ideally to what extent collisions (penetrations, indentations, contact area, and so on) have occurred.
2.) Force-response algorithms compute the interaction force between avatars and virtual objects when a collision is detected. This force approximates as closely as possible the contact forces that would normally arise during contact between real objects.
Hardware limitations prevent haptic devices from applying the exact force computed by the force-response algorithms to the user.
3.) Control algorithms command the haptic device in such a way that minimizes the error between ideal and applicable forces. The discrete-time nature of the haptic- rendering algorithms often makes this difficult.
The force response algorithms’ return values are the actual force and torque vectors that will be commanded to the haptic device.
Existing haptic rendering techniques are currently based upon two main principles: "point-interaction" or "ray-based". In point interactions, a single point, usually the distal point of a probe, thimble or stylus employed for direct interaction with the user, is employed in the simulation of collisions. The
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