Introduction
Head loss in a pipe flow is mainly due to friction in pipes and again friction is due to the roughness of pipes. It has been proved that friction is dependent not only upon the size and shape of the projection of roughness, but also upon their distribution of spacing.
Theory
If the head loss is a given length of uniform pipe is measured at different at different values of the velocity, it will be found that, as long as the velocity is low enough to secure laminar flow, the head loss, due to friction, will be directly proportional to the velocity. But with the measuring velocity, at some point where the visual observation in a transparent tube would show that the flow changes from laminar to turbulent, there will be an abrupt increase in the rate at which the head loss varies. If the logarithms of those two variables are plotted on linear scales or if the values are plotted directly on log-log paper, it will be found that, after a certain transition region has been passed, lines will be obtained with slopes.
Background
At the point when a liquid is flowing through a funnel, it encounters some resistance because of shear burdens, which changes over some of its energy into undesirable heat. Energy loss through friction is alluded to as "head loss because of friction" and is a channel 's component; length, funnel width, mean stream speed, properties of the liquid and harshness of the funnel (the later just being an element for turbulent streams), however is free of

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