Historical Development of Nursing Timeline

1657 Words Jul 1st, 2013 7 Pages
Historical Development of Nursing Timeline

Nursing has evolved greatly as a profession. Nursing has become an independent practice with its own theory practice, models and distinct interventions (George, 2011). Through the years, nursing leaders have developed many nursing theories that guide our practice today. Their research and contributions to the nursing profession has shaped our present-day practices. This paper will delineate the historic development of nursing science, focusing on the most widely known and used theories. This paper will also canvass the influences of these concepts in the development of the nursing profession, and multidisciplinary influences.
Development of Nursing Science
Florence Nightingale (1859)
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256).
Dorothea Orem 1971. Orem identified three theories: self-care, self-care deficit, and nursing systems (George, 2011, p. 27). Her theory introduced the concept of self-care where “all patients want to care for themselves, and they are able to recover more quickly and holistically by performing their own self-care as much as they're able” (“Dorothea E. Orem - Nursing Theorist”, 2013).
Betty Neuman 1974. Introduced the Systems Model that is based on the patient's relationship to stress. This theory described the nurse's role of keeping the system's stability by using three levels of prevention. “The first is primary prevention, which protects the normal line and strengthens the flexible line of defense. The secondary prevention is used to strengthen the internal lines of resistence, which reduces the reaction and increases resistence factors. Finally, tertiary prevention readapts, stabilizes, and protects the patient's return to wellness after treatment” (“Betty Neuman-Nursing Theorist”, 2013).
Margaret Newman 1979. Health As Expanding Consciousness. According to Margaret Newman- Nursing Theorist, “nursing is the process of recognizing the patient in relation to the environment, and it is the process of the understanding of consciousness” (2013).
Jean Watson 1979. Caring Model: Caring is central to nursing practice, and promotes health better than a simple medical cure. She believes that a holistic approach to health care is central to the practice
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