Introduction. As Management Is Concerned About Gaining

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As management is concerned about gaining profitability, employee relation, stakeholder interactions, and leadership and so on, business and management research is therefore derived from social science disciplines embedded in sociology, psychology, anthology and economics (Bryman & Bell, 2015). Also, management research can be regarded as applied research. According to Bryman and Bell (2015), it helps readers with choosing between solutions and carrying out practices.

To carry out management research, methods which refers to specific techniques for collecting and analysing data and particularly methodology which means the reason for doing research and design process of selecting methods are crucial considerations (King & …show more content…

Firstly, positivist believes that knowledge is from understanding of social phenomena by applying scientific measurements (Stokes, 2011). Positivist also supports that knowledge is form the senses that perceived from outside (Bryman & Bell, 2015). Interpretivist, on the other hand, believes that knowledge is from the mind of people, and it seeks to understand subjective meaning by interpreting ‘sense making’ (Stokes, 2011 pp75).

Axiology means the concerned view of researchers towards values in research (Saunders et al., 2012). The authors cited Heron (1996) that research values provide the justifications and motivation of research activities, therefore it is worth doing the research. The collection between ontology, epistemology and axiology mades paradigm.

Paradigms is literally a model for management research and knowledge with explanations of how it can be produced. Stokes (2011) concluded paradigm as the system built by diverse ‘beliefs and values’(pp110), it can also be viewed as approaches to conceptualising management knowledge (Bryman & Bell, 2015). In light of the interrelation of the three philosophy foundations mentioned above, diverse paradigms acting as various world-views are therefore set up accordingly. Burrel and Morgan (1979) stated that different management paradigms means different ways of researching and different research fields, and the paradigm categorisations developed by them showed four

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