# Introduction. Descriptive Statistics Organize And Describe

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Introduction
Descriptive statistics organize and describe the characteristics of a data set. Researchers are interested in two types of descriptive statistics: central tendency and variability. Measures of central tendency describe the center of a distribution of scores. Common measures of central tendency are the mean, median, and mode. Variability describes the dispersion or spread of scores in a data set. The three commonly reported measures of variability are standard deviation, range, and variance. Both of these types of descriptive statistics are necessary for research methods because they enable the experimenter to see trends and draw conclusions from the data set. Information provided by the combination of measures of central …show more content…

Method There were 95 PSYC 203 students in this experiment, 11 male and 84 female (M=19.09, SD= .93, Mdn=19, Max=21, Min=18). There were no missing responses. The personality measurement was broken down into 5 subscales. The five variables that were measured, known as the Big Five personality trait domains, were Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness, Emotional Stability and Extraversion. The subscales were measured with a 1 to 5 Likert scale, with a score of 1 being “very inaccurate” and five being “very accurate.” A higher score on an item indicated much agreement between the participant and the trait measured by that item. The measurement had a total of 20 items. Each subscale had four items; of those four items at least two were “reversed” (meaning that the lowest ranking indicated large agreement with the trait it was measuring).
Results
We calculated descriptive statistics for each of the Big Five personality traits. The means, standard deviations, and medians for each are as follows: Extraversion (E; M = 3.16, SD = .94, Mdn = 3.25), Agreeableness (A; M = 4.24, SD = .71, Med = 4.25), Conscientiousness (C; M = 3.46, SD = .786, Mdn = 3.5), Emotional Stability (ES; M = 3.11, SD = .75, Mdn = 3.00), and Openness (O; M = 3.69, SD = .76, Mdn = 3.75). The median would be a more accurate measure of central tendency for Agreeableness. The scores in this subscale were