Descriptive statistics organize and describe the characteristics of a data set. Researchers are interested in two types of descriptive statistics: central tendency and variability. Measures of central tendency describe the center of a distribution of scores. Common measures of central tendency are the mean, median, and mode. Variability describes the dispersion or spread of scores in a data set. The three commonly reported measures of variability are standard deviation, range, and variance. Both of these types of descriptive statistics are necessary for research methods because they enable the experimenter to see trends and draw conclusions from the data set. Information provided by the combination of measures of central …show more content…
Method There were 95 PSYC 203 students in this experiment, 11 male and 84 female (M=19.09, SD= .93, Mdn=19, Max=21, Min=18). There were no missing responses. The personality measurement was broken down into 5 subscales. The five variables that were measured, known as the Big Five personality trait domains, were Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness, Emotional Stability and Extraversion. The subscales were measured with a 1 to 5 Likert scale, with a score of 1 being “very inaccurate” and five being “very accurate.” A higher score on an item indicated much agreement between the participant and the trait measured by that item. The measurement had a total of 20 items. Each subscale had four items; of those four items at least two were “reversed” (meaning that the lowest ranking indicated large agreement with the trait it was measuring).
We calculated descriptive statistics for each of the Big Five personality traits. The means, standard deviations, and medians for each are as follows: Extraversion (E; M = 3.16, SD = .94, Mdn = 3.25), Agreeableness (A; M = 4.24, SD = .71, Med = 4.25), Conscientiousness (C; M = 3.46, SD = .786, Mdn = 3.5), Emotional Stability (ES; M = 3.11, SD = .75, Mdn = 3.00), and Openness (O; M = 3.69, SD = .76, Mdn = 3.75). The median would be a more accurate measure of central tendency for Agreeableness. The scores in this subscale were
The personality trait from the mini IPIP6 –scale descriptions analysed in this report is Extraversion. With a mean score of 5.5 compared to the mean score of sample 4.05, standard deviation of 1.17 and z score of 1.24, over all I scored above average compared to the mean total score of participants. By incorporating previous research on Extroversion and the mini –IPIP6 scale, an observation can be made that my score was above average due to my lack in introvert behaviours. These scales are self-reported data (S- Data), which can decrease the validity as self- report data can only measure what the individual is willing to express. The personality trait from Jackson-5 Scales of revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory - Scale description analysed
These methods include descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis. There are two measures of descriptive statistics; they are central tendency and measures of variability or dispersion. Descriptive statistics helps to summarize data gathered throughout the research. In addition, it happens to be one of the easiest forms of statistics to interpret and it is more meaningful. It also provides the chance for a pattern to emerge since it is easy to show and summarize. Furthermore, it manages to simplify a significant amount of data in a practical fashion. Statistics gathered by this method would generate valuable information on all the measured
Neuroticism, agreeableness, extraversion, openness, and conscientiousness are the five personality traits that make up the big five traits. Everyone in the world has theses traits in their personality but have a variation in how strong they are in them. After learning in greater detail about the two ends of the spectrums people can be at or in between we took the BFI to find out where we are on the bell curve for the big five traits. Then we compared our scores with four hundred and fifty-nine other female Luther students to determine our percentiles in the BFI traits. In emotional stability (ES), I ranked in the thirtieth percentile. Since the big five uses neuroticism (N) which is the opposite of emotional stability I scored in the seventieth percentile for N. One with this personality usually experiences lots of negative effects, and is more prone to having irrational ideas, less able to cope well to stress, and control their impulses. Second in the big five traits is agreeableness (A), my percentile for this is in the fifth percentile. People in the middle of the bell curve do not lean one way or another but use a combination of the two spectrums. A person high in A is sympathetic to others and eager to lend them a helping hand. Compared to someone on the opposite side of the bell curve who is egocentric, skeptical of others intentions, and competitive rather than cooperative. Additionally, one low in A are usually science minded and will follow the data shown.
The authors of this article were presenting the results of their investigation into the relationship between grade point average (GPA) and the Big Five personality traits of agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability extraversion and openness. The subject of this investigation was 434 second semester freshman students enrolled in an introductory psychology course.
The mean values for the Big Five traits were respectively close, such as 26.41 and 34.99; this suggested the reliability were adequate and consistent throughout all three samples. For the two-month re-test study results, showed reliability and scores were similar in the two independent subsamples. The convergent validity coefficients were substantial and significant and exceeded the discriminant validity. This suggests that an adequate convergent and discriminant validity of the Big Five. When participant’s age and gender were held constant, the Big Five were associated with school performances. Therefore, supported the hypothesis of the high students and suggested predictive validity. Overall, the results support the reliability and validity of the Big Five and can be useful in assessing personality traits in adults and adolescents
The Big Five Inventory (BFI) assessment is a self-report, 44-item inventory that aims to measure five personality factors in order to learn about an individual’s personality. The five factors being measured are, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness. This test uses the S-data approach, as well as the qualitative and quantitative methods. As the results from the Spanish and English BFI assessment are compared, the reliability, validity, and generalizability are analyzed in order to see how effective they are. The results provide an insight on one’s personality in each of the five categories. The findings concluded low reliability,
My score on Extraversion was 8. The facets of Extraversion and what I got on each are Friendliness 3, Gregariousness 2, Assertiveness 28, Activity Level 90, Excitement Level 8, and Cheerfulness 12. My score on Agreeableness was 86. The facets of Agreeableness and what I got on each are Trust 95, Morality 45, Altruism 79, Cooperation 44, Modesty 86, and Sympathy 79. My score on Conscientiousness was 51. The facets of Conscientiousness and what I got on each are Self-Efficacy 21, Orderliness 68, Dutifulness 72, Achievement-Striving 81, Self-Discipline 91, and Cautiousness 1. My score on Neuroticism was 99. The facets of Neuroticism and what I got on each are Anxiety 98, Anger 94, Depression 94, Self-Consciousness 89, Immoderation 87, and Vulnerability 99. My score on Openness to Experience was 1. The facets of Openness to Experience and what I got on each are Imagination 14, Artistic Interests 1, Emotionality 70, Adventurousness 1,
The study was conducted using the IPIP measure scales; (Extraversion, Neuroticism, Openness, Agreeableness & Conscientiousness), (Goldberg, 1999) and the Big Five Factor Model which measure the personality factors of the Big Five (Costa & McCrae, 1992). The four goals of Psychology was taken into consideration using the 25-item translated questionnaire with a 5 point Likert scale.
The information from this survey parallels similar studies in the field to contribute a deeper understanding of personality in
Many personality psychologists believe that there are five basic dimensions of personality often referred to as the “Big 5” personality. One of the personality traits is agreeableness and is used to describe the degree to which a person is kind, how dependable he/she is and can also describe how cooperative he/she is in certain situations. A person that has high levels of agreeableness has qualities such as trust, altruism, kindness, affection and other prosocial behaviours. The level of agreeableness in an individual can be beneficial to employers because it can be used to predict future behaviour, job performance and interactions with existing employees. The use of personality testing can be used to figure out levels of agreeableness in
Descriptive statistics describes data by organizing factors of a sample such as culture, gender, age, or location and is shown with charts or graphs. Descriptive statistics can interpret larger portions of data and reduce larger portions of data. The measure of central tendency describes the average score being the mean, the median being the midpoint of a spread of scores, and the mode the most frequent. There are certain levels of measurement and descriptive statistics may not be the best technique based on the measurement, these scales include nominal, ordinal, interval, and
One of the Big 5 personality traits is agreeableness. According to Lewis R. Goldberg (1993), agreeableness is a social trait and also a reflection of different individuals in concerning social harmony. Individuals who have higher level of agreeableness tend to get along with others more and easier involve themselves socially. The personality characteristics include helpful, considerate, kind, trustworthy, sympathetic, soft-hearted, good-natured, generous, lenient and willing to compromise their interest with others. Agreeable people view human nature in an optimistic way. Thus, they attract more friends and enjoy social support from others. However, individuals who have lower level of agreeableness are most likely to be
There have always been crimes, from a treachery to an assassination. Happens in every country you can think of, and every government has to deal with it. It is really stressful to try to understand the nature of the crimes: why are they done and where could they happen next. Out of this preoccupation is that we found studies gathering data from communities; we focused on one specific crime: murders.