Jean Watson and the Science of Caring
Jean Watson is one of the most influential nurse theorists of the 21st century. Her development of Caring Science/Human Caring Theory have put greater importance of a patient as a whole being, and a nurse’s role in care. Through her 10 caritas process, Watson has developed ways for nurses to foster a positive, caring relationship with their patients to aid in healing and development. The Watson Caring Science Institute as well as the Watson Caring Science Center continue the development and integration of these theories into the workplace, thus allowing nurses to provide better patient-centered care.
Jean Watson’s Science of Caring Explained Jean Watson is a very accomplished member of the nursing community. Her emphasis on nursing as a science as well as an art of caring has shifted the professions gaze back to the nurse-patient relationship.
The 10 Caritas Process The human caring theory is based on and practiced through, Watson’s 10 Caritas Process (Sitzman & Watson, 2014). These Caritas pertain to many different aspects of what Watson feels are necessary to appreciate and give loving, compassionate care to patients. The 10 Caritas Process is a lifelong journey. In 2014, Sitzman and Watson laid out the each of the Caritas as will be stated next. In the first Carita, Watson wants to highlight the compassion and helping nurses can offer to a patient, but that nurses must also help their own selves to provide quality care. The
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Nursing should not be looked upon or practiced as a mere physical approach to healing. Nursing should encompass the aspect of restoring each individual patient to his/her maximum physical and emotional state of being. In order to achieve such a goal, a patient must be able to bond with her caregiver on a personal level (Blais & Hayes, 2011). Jean Watson’s caritas factors sets an environment where the patient can obtain optimum health benefits (Blais & Hayes, 2011). The goal of this paper is to state my philosophy of nursing, the important dynamics and values that led me to adopting this philosophy, and the reason why I choose nursing as a profession. I will further explain how Jean Watson’s principles of philosophy is
Human caring is what sets nursing apart from other professions. As Watson (1998) stated, “care and love are the most universal, the most tremendous and the most mysterious of cosmic forces: they comprise the primal universal psychic energy. Caring is the essence of nursing and the most central and unifying focus for nursing practice” (p. 32-33). It is important to establish a good nurse-patient relationship in order to create a healing environment that would meet patient’s needs on all levels including physical, mental/emotional and spiritual, promote recovery, maintain health, and create positive outcomes. Jean Watson emphasized the importance of human
Jean Watson’s Theory of Caring has six explicit assumptions. The first assumption is, ontological assumptions emphasizing on the oneness or the connectedness of the human beings. The nurse’s experiences and values are key points to the first assumption. The second is an epistemological assumption which states that there are many ways of knowing. This includes topics as oneself and patients to abstract topics and concepts in nursing. The third assumption mentions that there are diverse methods of knowing and that the collection of information is in various forms. This includes learning about cultures, talking to patients etc. The fourth assumption makes the diverse perspectives explicit in the caring model.
Dr. Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring was released in 1979, and has continued to evolve over the past three decades. Watson's theory describes a philosophical foundation for nursing, which puts caring at the center of practice. It focuses on patient centered care, with emphasis on developing a trusting mutual bond. The caring environment allows for optimal health promotion, growth, empowerment, and disease prevention. The present paper discusses the theory's main concepts, and the significance of the model to nurses, nurse practioners, and health organizations. As well as, how the theory applies to my personal nursing philosophy.
Watson felt that caring was conveyed by the philosophy of the nursing profession as an exceptional way of coping with its environment. By applying 10 caring components to practice the patient becomes the focus rather than technology.
When asked to develop a personal nursing philosophy caring was found to be the main component. Jean Watson’s Caring Science as Sacred Science reflects this philosophy in which caring is the predominate component needed in nursing. This paper will provided basic information on the Caring Science as Sacred Science Theory. The paper will further provide a personal example of a patient experience in which this theory shaped the care and healing of the patient. The personal experience to be shown in this paper involves a patient with complex chronic illness. The patient had been hospitalized for over a month. Patients with chronic illness and in the hospital often experience feeling powerless, scared, distant, and confined (Kay Hogan & Cleary, 2013). When these feelings persist they overcome the patient and do not allow the patient to concentrate on healing or being an active member of the healthcare team. Patients in this situation need caring and psychosocial support before moving on with medical care. However, this can often be hard for the healthcare team. When a patient has complex complications often treating these issues is all the team has time for due to patient load and institutional demands. Jean Watson (2009) recognizes this in her work Caring Science and Human Caring Theory: Transforming Personal and Professional Practices of Nursing and Health Care. Watson (2009) recognizes nurses are often torn between values of human caring
According to Fawcett and DeSanto-Madeya (2013), Watson’s Theory of Human Caring can be categorized as a middle- range theory due to its focus on the relation between use of the clinical caritas processes and the building of a transpersonal caring relationship within the context of caring occasion and caring consciousness. Theory of Human Caring honors the unity of the whole human being, while also attending to creating a healing environment (Watson, 2006). Caring is acknowledged as transpersonal, in that it goes beyond the ego-oriented human; it involves the one caring as well as the care receiver, and is mutual, intersubjective, and reciprocal (Watson, 2006). The integrity and usefulness of the theory will be evaluated based on Fawcett’s (2005) criteria. Why it can be argued that the Theory of Human Caring meet the Fawcett’s evaluation criteria, there is evidence of confusion and lack of simplicity.
Jean Watson also developed a theory on the science of caring in which she indicates that there are 10 carative factors that are the basis of the science of caring as a nurse. Watson feels that ``the development of a helping-trust relationship between the nurse and patient is crucial for transpersonal caring`` (Neil &Tomey, 2006). Her fourth carative factor includes ``developing and sustaining a helping-trusting, authentic caring relationship``(Jackson, 2011)
Jean Watson is a nurse born on Jun 10, 1940 in West Virginia, Southern United States. She developed her human caring theory which focuses on providing quality nursing care in the hospital setting. The main focus of her theory revolves around the principle of caring. Watson stated in her theory, disease is cure, but illness would remain because without caring, health cannot be attained (Dr Hicks lecture 2016). Watson believes caring is the essence of nursing and connotes responsiveness between the nurse and the person. The nurse becomes a coparticipant with the client. In Watson’s theory there are four concepts which are highlighted, and they are as follow: person, health, environment, and nursing (The Seven Assumptions). Watson stated
She was a Distinguished Professor and Dean Emerita, University of Colorado Denver College of Nursing Anschutz Medical Center campus where she received and held the nation’s first Chair in Caring Science for 16 years (Watson’s Caring Science Institute, 2017). Dr. Watson founded the original Center for Human Caring in Colorado and was a fellow of the American Academy of Nursing (Watson’s Caring Science Institute, 2017). She was President of the National League for Nursing and a founding member of International Association in Human Caring and International Caritas Consortium as well as the Founder and Director of non-profit foundation, (Watson’s Caring Science Institute, 2017). Dr. Watson developed the Theory of Caring in 1979 with the latest revision occurring in 2008 (Watson’s Caring Science Institute, 2017). Finally, Dr. Watson taught for many years at the University Health Science Center in Denver, Colorado and has written and contributed to several books and peer-reviewed scholarly articles (Watson, 2008). She retired in 2013, but still speaks publically from time to time. She has several Youtube videos available for viewing.
Jean Watson’s theories of nursing are instrumental in today’s structure of nursing. Watson’s theories are being practiced in various health care setting all over the world. One of these theories in the nursing process. This entails first assessing patient, planning, intervention and evaluation. There is multitude of research proving these theories to be effective in treating and caring for patients with this consistent approach. In this paper I will dissect her different carative factors learned and that
Within the Theory of Human Caring, during transpersonal caring moment, the nurse and the patient gain entry into the lived knowledge of each other. In order for transpersonal contact to occur both the caregiver and the one being cared for should experience a process of being and becoming, both are influenced by the nature of transaction. (Watson, 1985) Watson defines human caring as a moral ideal, that the nurse should carry during every transaction. According to her theory, that ideal will assure a certain needed behaviour at the time of the caring occasion.
Born in West Virginia theorist Jean Watson has had a very distinguished career, as a nurse educator and researcher in the area of “human caring and loss” (Nursing Theories, 2012, p.1). Beginning her education with a BSN from University of
Watson links her 10 carative factors with her seven carative assumptions, this is where the science of nursing merges with the compassion of nursing practice. “Watson is one of the few nursing theorists who consider not only the cared-for but also the caregiver” Cara, 2003, p. 51). Promoting and applying these carative factors and carative assumptions is essential for nurses as well as patients.
In order to effectively guide practice, it is essential that nurses understand and critique different theories to evaluate them for use in practice. For this paper I have selected Jean Watson’s Human Caring Theory: