Literature Review : The Role Of Need Analysis In Literature

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I. LITERATURE REVIEW 1. NEEDS ANALYSIS In the 1920s, the term “needs analysis” was originated in India when Michael West (1888-1973) carried out a needs analysis survey to examine why and how Bengalis students learn English before he found out that the students need English to read and acquired English through reading (Howatt, 1984) Among several scholars and authors offering definitions to needs analysis, Helen (2010) describes it as a process in which language learners’ needs on particular language skills are carefully investigated by ESP course developers. Regarding the importance of NA in ESP, West (1994) needs analysis benefits syllabus designers with better understanding of learners of different types and needs in order to come up with appropriate courses. Similarly, Helen (2010) mentions that successful identification of language and skills by needs analysis not only helps design an effective ESP course content but also carry out a final assessment on learners and learning. Also about a rationale for needs analysis and needs analysis research, Long (2005) believes that language teachers and applied linguistics researchers are able to reduce past mistakes by familiarizing themselves with not only the history of needs analysis but also the well-chosen selection of up-to-date sources and procedures. Belcher (2006) points out that the role of needs analysis in ESP is to realize specific problems that specific learners encounter in particular contexts in order to
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