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Literature Review on Autism Spectrum Disorders

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Literature Review:
Autism Spectrum Disorders: What is Autism, how is it caused, and how can it be treated?
The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
Crystal Waynick
April 3, 2012

Abstract Autism has become an increasing subject of interest, especially to researchers and medical professionals. This increase in interest is most likely due to the fact that autism is becoming an increasing problem in children, with the number of diagnoses doubling in just a four year period. In order to discover what may cause this disorder as well as finding effective ways to treat it, people must be informed and knowledgeable about autism. The current study discusses what ASD is, symptoms of this disorder,
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Children with autism also suffer from several communication issues, such as failing or being slow to respond to verbal attempts to get their attention, developing language at a slower pace than others, repeating words or phrases that they hear, and using words that are strange or out of place, that do not really make sense to people other than the child and those close to the child whom are familiar with the child 's communication style. The last important symptom seen in children with ASD is repetitive and stereotyped behavior. Many children with ASD tend to have odd, repetitive actions and behaviors that may be referred to as stereotyped behaviors. An example of a stereotyped behavior might be a simple gesture of the arm that is repeatedly done by the child. Children with autism often have one subject or interest that they tend to overly focus on. They tend to become obsessed with one particular subject, and will learn everything they can about the subject of interest. Because autistic children seem to display several repetitive behaviors and thoughts, a set routine is usually the best environment for a child with ASD (NIMH, 2011). While there have been many theories and suggestions of what may cause autism spectrum disorders, there is not one particular known cause of these disorders. A great deal of research has been done to examine possible causes of and risk factors for this disorder. Recently, there has been research on the hypotheses
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