Maintaining A Constant And Balanced Internal Environment

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Homeostasis is the body 's attempt to maintain a constant and balanced internal environment, which requires persistent monitoring and adjustments as conditions change. Homeostatic regulation is monitored and adjusted by the receptor, the command center, and the effector. The receptor receives information based on the internal environment; the command center, receives and processes the information; and the effector responds to the command center, opposing or enhancing the stimulus.1
Living tissue is made up of cells. There are many different types of cells, but all have the same basic structure. Tissues are layers of similar cells that perform a specific function. The different kinds of tissues group together to form organs.
There are four
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The rupture of cartilage homeostasis whatever its cause: aging, genetic predisposition, trauma or metabolic disorder, induces profound phenotypic modifications of chondrocytes, which then promote the synthesis of a subset of factors that induce cartilage damage and target other joint tissues. Cartilage degeneration may occur in response to inappropriate mechanical stress and low-grade local or systemic inflammation associated with trauma, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and early changes in cartilage appear at the joint surface in areas where mechanical forces such as shear stress are greatest.3

The basic role of articular cartilage is to adequately transmit forces across arthrodial joints and maintain a relatively friction-free surface to support limb movement. Numerous studies have described changes in articular cartilage that are relatively consistent and inevitable consequences of aging. These include mild fibrillation (fraying) and softening of the articular surface, a decrease in the average size of the proteoglycan monomers along with a decrease in the aggregation capacity of these molecules, and overall loss of matrix tensile strength and stiffness. These types of changes may be related to the proposed age-related shift in the chondrocyte phenotype rendering the remaining resident cells less capable of maintaining cartilage homeostasis and setting the stage for overt degenerative cartilage disease.4
Osteoarthritis can be managed by
• Managing
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