Management History

2328 Words Jul 12th, 2007 10 Pages
Management History

Modern managers use many of the practices, principles, and techniques developed from earlier concepts and experiences. The Industrial Revolution brought about the emergence of large-scale business and its need for professional managers. Early military and church organizations provided the leadership models.
In 1975, Raymond E. Miles wrote Theories of Management: Implications for Organizational Behavior and Development published by McGraw Hill Text. In it, he popularized a useful model of the evolution of management theory in the United States. His model includes classical, human relations, and human resources management.
Classical School
The Classical school of thought began around 1900 and continued into the
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This enabled the manager to break down a job into its component parts and streamline the process. His wife, Lillian Gilbreth, was a psychologist and author of The Psychology of Work. In 1911 Frank Gilbreth wrote Motion Study and in 1919 the couple wrote Applied Motion Study. Frank and Lillian had 12 children. Two of their children, Frank B. Gilbreth, Jr. and Ernestine Gilbreth Careyone, wrote their story, Cheaper by the Dozen.
One of Frank Gilbreth 's first studies concerned bricklaying. (He had worked as an apprentice bricklayer.) He designed and patented special scaffolding to reduce the bending and reaching which increased output over 100 per cent. However, unions resisted his improvements, and most workers persisted in using the old, fatiguing methods.
The Gilbreths believed that there was one best way to perform an operation. However, this "one best way" could be replaced when a better way was discovered. The Gilbreths defined motion study as dividing work into the most fundamental elements possible, studying those elements separately and in relation to one another; and from these studied elements, when timed, building methods of least waste. They defined time study as a searching scientific analysis of methods and equipment used or planned in doing a piece of work, development in practical detail of the best way of doing it, and determination of the time required. The Gilbreths drew symbols on operator
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