Microorganisms are very tiny living organisms. They are microscopic and may be unicellular or multicellular (Madigan and Martinko 2006). The microorganisms include all prokaryotes and some eukaryotes. They are usually not visible to the naked eye, but some macroscopic ones can be seen with naked eye also (Max Planck Society Research News Released Accessed 15 September 2012).
Microorganisms include bacteria, archaea, protozoa, fungi, algae and some members of the kingdom Animalia such as rotifers and planarians. Viruses also fall under this category, i.e., microorganisms but some researchers even consider viruses as non living (Rybicki 1990) (LWOFF 1956).
Microorganisms inhabit every sphere of this planet Earth. They inhabit the most …show more content…
f) Halophiles:- it includes organisms which can grow in extremely saline conditions. These sites often have less amounts of water also. Example: Haloferax spp., Dunaliella salina etc.
g) Barophiles:- these are also known as Peizophiles. These are the organisms which can survive at sites having very high pressure such as in deep sea. Example: Xenophyophores sp., Halomonas salaria etc.
h) Mesophiles:- they are also known as Neutrophiles. These are the organisms which survive at moderate conditions of temperature, acidity, alkalinity, salinity etc. They require optimum balanced conditions only for their survival. Example: almost all the living organisms except those mentioned above.
They may be present in active volcanoes, sulphur springs, thousands of feet under the sea level, in acid springs, ice and glaciers etc. They are present on and inside living organisms as well as non living things. Microorganisms also have the ability to reproduce both sexually as well as asexually.
On 17th March 2013, microorganisms were found to be present in the deepest spot of the Earth, i.e., Mariana Trench (Glud et al. 2013). They have also been found as deep as 1900 feet inside the rocks and 8500 feet below the sea floor (Oskin and Becky 2013). According to one of the researchers, “You can find microbes everywhere- they are extremely adaptable to conditions and survive wherever they are” (Choi and Charles 2013).
Microorganisms are very useful for many important
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Figure 1: The figure illustrates the classification of organisms as non-halophiles, halotolerant, halophiles or extreme halophiles based on their ability to grown at various NaCl salt concentrations (Madigan et. al. 2015).
Most micro-organisms need most of the things you and I need to flourish and grow - moisture, warmth and a source of nutrition - some (usually the most dangerous such as those responsible for some types of gangrene) can do without oxygen (anaerobic bacteria). They need a mode of spread (usually the unwashed or poorly washed hands of people or badly cleaned equipment/facilities or badly stored food) and a vulnerable person to invade.
Since they do not contain a nucleus they would be in the prokaryotic domain. They would need to be from the kingdoms Bacteria Specifically Eubacteria. They use photosynthesis to produce their own food. This animal is most likely Prochlorococcus. This is the most abundant photosynthetic cell in the ocean. Another one is cyanobacteria or blue green algae, but they are prokaryotic unlike algae. They could be grouped by their shapes like cyanobacteria are spherical, rod, and spiral. They can also be grouped as photosynthetic since they have
Microorganisms are both beneficial and harmful. These microorganisms are important to humans because they play a role in the ecology of life, by decomposing wastes, both natural and man-made, such as creating nitrogen fertilizer at the root zones of certain crops. Other several pathogens that can cause serious harm, even immediate death due to the diseases or disease causing products they produce. Overall, microorganisms play an important role in life.
Since microorganisms are not visible to the eye, the essential tool in microbiology is the microscope. One of the first to use a microscope to observe microorganisms was Robert Hooke, the English biologist who observed algae and fungi in the 1660s. In the 1670s, “Anton van Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch merchant, constructed a number of simple microscopes and observed details of numerous forms of protozoa, fungi, and bacteria” (Introduction to Microscopes, n.d.). During the 1700s, microscopes were used to further explore on the microbial world, and by the late 1800s, the light microscope had been developed. “The electron microscope was developed in the 1940s, thus
The purpose of this study is to identify four unknown organisms. The unknown organisms have been assigned randomly to six-research groups by Professor Hoffman. Each research group was provided two eukaryotes and two prokaryotes. The unknown organisms will fall into the following classifications: bacteria, algae, fungi, or protozoans. All living organisms are organized into one of three domains of life, Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
Finally there is the Hyperthermophiles. Found in very hot temperatures such as hydrothermal vents in deep oceans. With this said, the two microorganisms that I worked with would be known as Mesophiles. Both of these microorganisms grow on or in the human body. They prefer moist heat that is body temperature. I made an incubation box to help mimic the temperatures needed. Typically trying to maintain the temperature of thirty seven degrees Celsius.
There are tiny creatures called extremophiles that live here. Inside the creature's cell membrane, they have specially adapted structures. These structures pump out acidic substances allowing these microorganisms to thrive.
Halophiles are adaptive by two strategies that include strategies to survive with the osmotic pressure that made by the high NaCl concentration of the normal environments they inhabit (Madigan, M.T.1999, Oren, A, 2002). Other strategy is accumulating of inorganic ions in the cytoplasm (K+, Na+, Cl-) that is in some extremely halophilic bacteria and balance the osmotic pressure of the medium, they have specific proteins which are able to be stable and active in the salty condition. In contrast, moderate halophiles have other strategies to accumulate high amounts of specific organic osmolytes in the cytoplasm, that function as osmoprotectants, which provide osmotic balance and it has not any interfering with the normal metabolism of the cell
1) What are bacteria? Bacteria are microorganisms. They are very small to see with a naked eye that you have to use a microscope to see them. They exist all around the world.
The definition of Microbiology is the branch of science that deals with microorganisms. Microorganisms are very small organisms that require the use of a micro scope to visualize them, which are bacterium, viruses, fungi (the most common) and others which are not so common such as parasites. Microorganisms are an essential element to the field of microbiology because it allows researchers in the field to find specific illness caused by a specific organism, cures for illnesses, medicine, history of an organism, and the epidemiology of an organism.
Prokaryotic Cells All living things are made of cells, and cells are the smallest units that can be alive. Life on Earth is classified into five kingdoms, and they each have their own characteristic kind of cell. However the biggest division is between the cells of the prokaryote kingdom (monera, the bacteria) and those of the other four kingdoms (animals, plants, fungi and protoctista), which are all eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are smaller and simpler than eukaryotic cells, and do not have a nucleus. Prokaryotic means 'pre-nucleus' and eukaryotic means 'true nucleus'.
Prokaryote cells - bacteria and archeans. They are single celled organisms, where the DNA is not separate from the cytoplasm. These prokaryote cells formed the earliest and most primitive life on earth.
Life on this planet began with microorganisms. Through millions of years microorganisms have found ways to successfully adapt and survive. These adaptations have created a wide biodiversity, allowing them to basically populate in all places. Why are these microbes so important? Because they shape the history of our world. Some microbes can be deathly to humans while some others are favorable, for example, bacteria that lives in the gut of both humans and animals and helps during the process of digestion (Alfred Brown & Heidi Smith, 2006). Understanding these interactions help scientists to find ways to protect humans from potential deathly pathogens. In order to observe microbes, microscope proficiency and microorganisms’ identification are crucial skills in a microbiology lab. During this laboratory session, samples of environmental and human organisms were inoculated into two different rich media and incubated to their according temperature. After this, appropriate use and calibration of the microscope was performed. Lastly, morphology and size of different species of bacteria, algae, fungi and protozoan were recorded.