Microorganisms Inhabit Every Sphere of Our Planet Essay

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Microorganisms are very tiny living organisms. They are microscopic and may be unicellular or multicellular (Madigan and Martinko 2006). The microorganisms include all prokaryotes and some eukaryotes. They are usually not visible to the naked eye, but some macroscopic ones can be seen with naked eye also (Max Planck Society Research News Released Accessed 15 September 2012).
Microorganisms include bacteria, archaea, protozoa, fungi, algae and some members of the kingdom Animalia such as rotifers and planarians. Viruses also fall under this category, i.e., microorganisms but some researchers even consider viruses as non living (Rybicki 1990) (LWOFF 1956).
Microorganisms inhabit every sphere of this planet Earth. They inhabit the most
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f) Halophiles:- it includes organisms which can grow in extremely saline conditions. These sites often have less amounts of water also. Example: Haloferax spp., Dunaliella salina etc.

g) Barophiles:- these are also known as Peizophiles. These are the organisms which can survive at sites having very high pressure such as in deep sea. Example: Xenophyophores sp., Halomonas salaria etc.

h) Mesophiles:- they are also known as Neutrophiles. These are the organisms which survive at moderate conditions of temperature, acidity, alkalinity, salinity etc. They require optimum balanced conditions only for their survival. Example: almost all the living organisms except those mentioned above.

They may be present in active volcanoes, sulphur springs, thousands of feet under the sea level, in acid springs, ice and glaciers etc. They are present on and inside living organisms as well as non living things. Microorganisms also have the ability to reproduce both sexually as well as asexually.
On 17th March 2013, microorganisms were found to be present in the deepest spot of the Earth, i.e., Mariana Trench (Glud et al. 2013). They have also been found as deep as 1900 feet inside the rocks and 8500 feet below the sea floor (Oskin and Becky 2013). According to one of the researchers, “You can find microbes everywhere- they are extremely adaptable to conditions and survive wherever they are” (Choi and Charles 2013).
Microorganisms are very useful for many important
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