Motiation Is Influenced by influenced of Individual, Cultural, Ethnic, and Historical Factors

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Motivation is a complex phenomenon which is influenced of individual, cultural, ethnic and historical factors. According to De Cenzo et al., (1996), people who are motivated use a greater effort to perform a job than those who are not motivated. Motivation can be defined as “a series of energizing forces that originate both with and beyond an individual’s self”. These forces determine the person’s behavior and therefore, influence his/her productivity (Jackson, 2005). In other words this means that all thinkable factors of physical or psychological aspects that we interact with, leads to a reaction within our self or of the entire organization.
Another definition for Motivation is “the willingness to do something, conditioned by the
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The best way to view the expectancy theory is with the acronym VIE, which stands for: Valence, Instrumentality, and Expectancy, where (Bounds, 1995):
Valenceis the value or anticipated satisfaction that an individual attaches to an outcome.
Instrumentalityis the possibility that a doing well performance will yield the valued outcome.
Expectancyis the possibility that a certain level of effort will result in successful behavioral performance.

2.2 Rewards
Effects of rewards to employee motivation are significant (Danish and Usman, 2010), which then influences to commitment and change process (Parish et al., 2008). Rewards can be defined as financial and non financial benefits which are given in accordance to an individual or team achievement (Armstrong, 1993). Promotion, pride, job security, good relations with colleagues and superiors and monetary rewards – salary increases, bonuses and benefits are the rewards that has been studied and positive relations with the employee motivation has been found (Danish and Usman, 2010). Similarly Kanungo and Hartwick (1987) observes the motivational effectiveness of rewards and finds that promotion, pay, personal challenge, recognition, authority and job security are the most effective six rewards out of forty eight of them. Mahaney and Lederer (2006) make a more direct conclusion and claims
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