There are three different types of meningitis; viral, fungal, and bacterial meningitis. Although not as common as viral meningitis, bacterial meningitis is more likely to leave individuals with permanent disabilities. In children, disabilities can range from deafness, hearing loss, and cerebral palsy? the most common after effects. And in adults, septic shock, brain swelling, and hydrocephalus are most likely to occur if the disease advances without treatment within a sufficient time period. The three main bacteria responsible for bacterial meningitis are streptococcus pneumoniae, haemophilus influenza type B (Hib), and neisseria meningitidis.
The four most common causes of bacterial meningitis come from Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitides, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and Listeria monocytogenes.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, commonly known as gonorrhea, is a gram-negative bacteria found in the family Neisseriaceae. This proteobacteria does not form spores, cannot move (have no flagellum), are encapsulated in a bacterial capsule, and are non-acid fast. They are diplococci, found in pairs of round kidney-bean shaped bacteria. They are small, smooth and colourless with flattened sides. These obligate aerobes need oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other nutrient supplementation (usually chocolate agar) to survive. They produce the enzyme β-lactamase, allowing N. gonorrhoeae to resist certain antibiotics. There are 70 known strains of N. gonorrhoeae, and they produce colonies after 18-24 hours of incubation.
Meningococcal Meningitis is the infection and inflammation of the meninges. Newborns and infants are at greatest risk for contracting bacterial meningitis with Neisseria meningitides being the typical pathogen in the majority of children age 2 months through 12 years (London, Ladewig, Ball, Bindler, & Cowen, 2011). There is a mortality rate of 10% for children who develop meningitis from this particular bacterium (Muller, 2013).
One of the four different types of meningitis is bacterial meningitis. Neisseria meningitides is a bacterium that is seen to be the main cause of bacterial meningitis. There are multiple forms of this type of bacterium; therefore more than on strain exists of this
pneumoniae has containing two types of neuraminidase NanA and NanB. These two proteins do not share the same amino acid chains, making their identities different. Neuraminidase helps split the fatal N-acetylneuraminic acid from mucin, glycoproteins or glycolipids on eukaryotic cell surfaces. The NanA protein is composed of three units; an aminoterminal region, a proline rich region and a cell wall sortase anchor motif. Hence the job of NanA in S. pneumoniae infection is to remove the fatal sialic acid residue from the epithelial cells exposing receptors and increasing the nasopharyngeal colonization of bacterial
Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, membranes that surround the brain. This can extend as far as infecting the cerebral spinal fluid on top of causing the tissue to swell. Meningitis comes in two major forms; bacterially and virally. However, having bacterial meningitis is much more severe than viral meningitis. There is a lot more danger in having a bacterial infection within the brain than a viral infection within the brain. What makes bacterial meningitis so lethal is that “even when the disease is diagnosed early and adequate treatment is started, 5% to 10% of patients die, typically within 24 to 48 hours after the onset of symptoms. Left untreated, up to 50% of cases may die, (6) or there
Streptococcus agalactiae, also known as Group B Streptococcus is identified as a gram-positive bacterium. S. agalactiae is a commensal bacterium found in the human digestive and genitourinary tract (Rosinski-Chupin, et al., 2015). S. agalactiae causes various diseases such as septicemia, meningitis, and pneumonia. Also, S. agalactiae infections occur predominately in pregnant women, neonates and elderly persons (Louvois, 1980). Due to the formation of its polysaccharide capsule, S. agalactiae can be treated with antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin and vancomycin (Bolukaoto, et al., 2015).
Bacterial meningitis is the most common form of meningitis. Approximately 80% of all meningitis associated cases are bacterial, the disease is the critical reason for increasing morbidity rates in young children under the age group of one year. In the last 20 years (1991–2010) close to one million suspected meningitis cases were reported in the UK and in the US.   The ‘meninges’ is the name for the three membranes that envelope the brain and cord (the central nervous system). Bacterial meningitis is caused by three different bacteria’s: Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis, and the Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. The bacteria spreads across the spinal cord and optic nerves, within the bacteria it 's fluid contents, the cerebrospinal fluid. The excessive manifestation of bacteria and their toxins within these areas, results in an inflammation of the cranial or spinal structures. This inflammation will consequence in severe damage to the nervous system and brain structures unless treated. Due to the nature of the meninges and the cerebrospinal fluid, an infection of any area of the system can rapidly spread to the rest of the system In this review I will discuss the epidemiology and pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis in young children and its subsequent clinical diagnosis of effective vaccines.
Neisseria meningitidis, also known as meningococcus, is a human pathogen that causes severe infections in the menings that surround the brain and spinal cord. There is a 50% fatality rate if the infections are not treated on time. (1)
Nesseria meningitides can be part of the normal flora of the upper part of the respiratory tract (19). It is a pathenogenic, gram-negative aerobe, which resides primarily in mucous membranes. The shape of the bacterium is diplococci (11). Nesseria meningitides is heterotrophic and reproduces by way of binary fission (12).
The disease give off a toxin in the life cycle of bacteria after it life span has ended and it has quickly multiplied. The toxin which is emitted is so deadly, it rapidly kills tissues surrounding the areas where the highest concentrations of the bacteria is located. Oddly, when the bacteria is treated with an antibiotic, it produces more toxin because a greater number of bacteria are being killed. Though historically the meningococcal disease has been known to only attack and the very young. There are now more and more cases of the disease appearing in the “young adult” crowd. These would be at the roughly college age.
A pathogen is a disease causing microorganisms, such as fungi, bacteria and viruses to its host. I have picked two fatal pathogenic bacteria for my report, which are Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Neisseria meningitides (NM).