Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is one of the most common clinical disorders in children and adolescents (Nock, Kazdin, Hirpi & Kessler, 2007). Greene et al. (2002) defines ODD as “a recurrent pattern of developmentally inappropriate levels of negativistic, defiant, disobedient, and hostile behavior toward authority figures”. ODD primarily consists of stubborn (e.g., tantrums) and aggressive behaviors that the child attempts to rationalize based on the circumstances rather than view as consequential and problematic (Kazdin, 2010). Therefore, ODD can have serious implications for the child’s functioning at home, in school, and in the community, so parents of children with ODD are more likely to utilize child mental health services (Kazdin, 2010). The history, symptoms, diagnosis, prevalence, age of onset, duration, risk factors, comorbidity, and treatments of ODD will be discussed, as well as the rationale behind the revisions from the fourth (DSM-IV) to fifth editions (DSM-5) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The ODD diagnosis was introduced by the Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry in 1966 and appeared for the first time as a distinct child/adolescent onset disorder in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) in 1980 (Nock et al., 2007). In the 35 years since its induction however, not much more has been learned about the disorder because the majority of studies combine both ODD and
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Disruptive Behavior Disorders. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) form a cluster of childhood disorders considered to be “disruptive behavior disorders” (American Psychiatric Association, 2004). Although most violent adolescents have more than one mental disorder and they may have internalizing disorders, for example depression or substance abuse, there appear to be increasingly higher rates of physical aggression found in these adolescents who experience disruptive behavior disorders than for those with other mental disorders. The fact that violent juvenile offenders are more likely to have these diagnoses is not surprising, because impulsive and/or aggressive behaviors are part of their diagnostic criteria. Additionally, there is relatively high co-morbidity with substance abuse disorders, which are also associated with juvenile violence (Moeller, 2001). Individuals with conduct disorder have the following features but this list is not inclusive for example they may have little empathy and little concern for the feelings, wishes, and wellbeing of others, respond with aggression, may be callous and lack appropriate feelings of guilt re remorse, self-esteem may be low despite a projected
Case 15.1 discusses Bobby Jones, a nine-year-old African American boy. He is in the fourth grade at Lewiston Elementary School. He is being raised by his mother Susan and has five siblings. Recently, Bobby’s teacher, Ms. Matthews has had some concerns regarding his behavior. She stated that he is disruptive, never completes his work and that he is very negative when it comes to school (Pomeroy, 2015). Based off of the information provide in case 15.1, Bobby presents with many of the symptoms and behaviors that are consistent with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (F91.3), and the severity is moderate. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM-5, ODD involves a frequent pattern of angry/irritable moods, vindictiveness,
According to Barkley (1997), oppositional defiant disorder is categorized as a pattern of aggressive defiance behavior that lasts for about six months. ODD ranges from moderate non-compliant behavior to total defiant behavior. Children diagnosed with ODD will meet both non-compliance and defiance criteria. A child who is diagnosed with defiance disorder will refuse to listen to a reasonable order and will act out
A rating scale was completed by a Parker Elementary school teacher, Mrs. Smith for 8 year old Andrea. The Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale (DBRS) consisted of 50 questions with responses with zero representing rarely/hardly ever, one representing occasionally, two representing frequently, and three representing most of the time. The scale utilized is used by clinical professionals for diagnostic purposes of four different areas for behavior concerns these include: distractible, oppositional, impulsive-hyperactivity, and antisocial conduct. The rating scale was completed on 1/31/1992.
The article starts with the vignette, describing a behavior of a boy, who rejects teacher’s invitation to listen to a story on a rug with his classmates. Obviously, the boy described is not the only one to resist the authority of a teacher, because student defiance is a commonplace. Authors distinguish widespread milder forms of SD and Oppositional defiant disorder,
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is one of a group of behavioral disorders in the disruptive behavior disorders category. Children who have these disorders tend to be disruptive with a pattern of disobedient, hostile, and defiant behavior toward authority figures. These children often rebel, are stubborn, argue with adults, and refuse to obey. They have angry outbursts, have a hard time controlling their temper, and display a constant pattern of aggressive behaviors. ODD is one of the more common mental health disorders found in children and adolescents (AACAP, 2009). It is also associated with an increased risk for other forms of psychopathology, including other disruptive behavior disorders as well as mood or anxiety problems (Martel,
In order for someone to be diagnosed with Conduct Disorder, they must meet all the criteria A through C, and Criteria A clearly states that a client must have experience 3 of the 15 statements listed in the DSM-V, within the last 12 months. The behaviors include aggression toward people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness and stealing, and other serious violations of rules. Eddies actions do not fit into this criteria since he is not aggressive or bullying classmates or friends, and although his parents have stated that he “demolished” the kitchen or living room, it is clear he is not violent or prone to lying and stealing. The only blatant disregard for rules that could be considered dangerous was when Eddie ran out of the house and wandered into the street until someone returned him home. However, that occurred when he was four years old, not in the last 12 months. Eddie does not fit into Criteria A due to a lack of violent nature. Criteria B states that the individuals behaviors cause a significant impairment in social, academic or occupational functioning, however, since Eddies behaviors do not fit into Criteria A, this does not apply. Lastly, Criteria C states that if the client is 18 years or older, they do not meet the criteria for antisocial personality disorder, which also doesn’t apply to Eddie. It is clear after looking through all Criteria A-C, Eddie does not have conduct disorder.
There are two common type of disruptive behavior disorders that affects children lives in a negative fashion when not treated properly. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics (2004) “Behaviors typical of disruptive behavior disorders can closely resemble ADHD particularly where impulsivity and hyperactivity are involved but ADHD, ODD, and CD are considered separate conditions that can occur independently. About one third of all children with ADHD have coexisting ODD, and up to one quarter have coexisting CD” .The two types of disruptive behavior disorders are oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Some symptoms of disruptive behavior disorder is breaking rules, defiant, argumentative, disobedient behaviors towards authority
Oppositional Defiant Disorder or ODD is a very common disorder. According to the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry ODD is the “top leading causes of referrals to the youth mental health services” (The American Journal of Psychiatry, 1993). Although this disorder is very common it often goes untreated due to factors that will be later covered. When a person has ODD they are often very irritable, argumentative, and defiant. While ODD could seem like it is just a phase that a person is going through it can be more serious than that. ODD can lead to many problems in a person’s life, for example being able to have a healthy relationship with family members, keeping a job, or even graduating from school. ODD does not just effect the
Ever since my later adolescence years, I have always been intrigued by the diverse complexity of the human brain. Numerous days I have sat down obtrusively observing my surroundings just to satisfy my curiosity on how individuals think, reason and problem solve everyday life happenings. As such, when it was time to attend university, I decided to study psychology as a means of gaining knowledge and understanding about individuals’ cognitive processes and their behavior. During my undergraduate studies, for a particular reason, I was struck by Abnormal Psychology and spent hours thinking about the various disorders captured by the then Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM IV). I spent an awful lot of time trying to understand the differing disorders and how their impact on the behavior and thinking processes of individuals that are diagnosed with them.
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), opposition defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) are three distinct disorders based upon their respective diagnostic criteria in the DSM-5. If ODD and CD were mild forms of ASPD, then there would need to be causal relationship between the childhood manifestations of ODD and CD and the adult manifestation of ASPD. There is evidence of comorbidity between ODD and CD, and also evidence to suggest that children diagnosed with these disorders may go on to develop ASPD later in life; however, correlation does not equal causation. The three disorders have subtle but important differences in their associated behaviors, underlying causes, treatment outcomes, and neurological signs.
A study conducted on effect of play therapy on reducing behavioral problems of children with the oppositional defiant disorder. Multistage cluster sampling was selected. 40 children were randomly selected, according to their parents and teachers. Out of 40, 16 children showed the symptoms of ADHD. Play therapy reduced the severity of ADHD in experimental group. Children`s disobedience can be reduced by the play therapy. (Jafari.N
There is an array of negative behaviors associated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). These include poor temperament, argumentative and vindictive attitudes. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition or
The individual with oppositional defiant disorder will easily lose his temper; is regularly defiant or refuses to comply with the rules or requests set by adults; often argues with adults; usually and deliberately bothers people; will blame everyone else for their behavior and mistakes; is generally angry, resentful, spiteful or vindictive; and is often touchy or easily annoyed by the actions or inactions of others. The diagnosis for oppositional defiant disorder is considered only when the behavior occurs more frequently than it is usually observed in individuals of a comparable developmental level and similar age. The conduct of the adolescent and the conflicts he may have with adults will vary from the inevitable clash that may exist between teenagers and parents/authority figures. While normal conflict or rebellion may be a temporary or isolated incident, oppositional defiant disorder occurs when such conflict becomes severe and out of control. Moreover, in order for the diagnosis to be made, this disturbing behavior must cause significant issues at the personal, academic, professional, and social levels. Oppositional defiant disorder shouldn’t be diagnosed if the medical professional suspects that the behavior is being directly caused by another psychological disorder such