Organic chemistry is the scientific study of organic materials, those that contain carbon atoms. Organic compounds are classified into families that are known as homologous series. The members of each homologous series share some common features. A homologous series is composed of compounds that have the same general formula (functioning group), usually the only differentiation is the length of the carbon chain or number of monomers. The difference in the length of the carbon chain can have an effect on many physical properties of the chemical, for example the boiling point. Alcohols are organic compounds in which one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups is bound to a carbon atom. This group of compounds plays a key role in the world, ranging from alcoholic beverages to medicine to being important compounds in organic chemistry. Boiling point is the point at which liquids become heated to such an extent that its molecules begin to turn into a gas, this is due to the addition of energy to the molecules. Molecular mass is a number that equals the sum of the combined atomic masses of all the atoms in a molecule.
This investigation looks to investigate the effects of C-C bonds, molecular mass, and symmetry on the boiling point of homologous series. It could provide a preliminary first step for later studies in this area by establishing a link between single C-C bonds and boiling points of hydrocarbons. The homologous series analyzed in this investigation will be alcohols
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Atoms are the basic units of matter and all life is based on them. Life on earth is based on the element carbon. It is a highly versatile atom able to form four covalent bonds with itself or other atoms such as hydrogen and water. Atoms combine to form molecules and those that are carbon based are referred to as organic molecules. Organic molecules occur in four different types in living cells; carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. They are also known as hydrocarbons due to the presence of both hydrogen and carbon. Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio 1:2:1. They are important sources of energy and are classified in three main groups; monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.
Abstract: One mixture of two unknown liquid compounds and one mixture of two unknown solid compounds were separated, isolated, purified, and characterized by boiling point. Two liquid unknowns were separated, isolated, and purified via simple distillation. Then, the process of an acid-base extraction and washing were used to separate two unknown compounds into two crude compounds: an organic acid and a neutral organic compound. Each crude compound was purified by recrystallization, resulting in a carboxylic acid (RCO2H) and a pure organic compound (RZ). The resulting mass of the pure carboxylic acid was 1.688g with a percent recovery of 31.80%, the boiling range was 244-245 °C, and its density was 2.0879g/mL. The resulting mass of the pure organic solid was 2.4902g with a percent recovery of 46.91%, the boiling range was 52.0-53.4°C, and its density was 1.5956 g/mL.
Both are pure hydrocarbons and are non-polar (symmetry causes dipoles to cancel). Both have london dispersion force. Propane has 26 electrons, gasoline has 66. Since gasoline has more electrons, it has a higher london dispersion force and so has a higher boiling temperature than propane.
Society relies heavily on metals in nearly every aspect of life; however the corrosion of such metals has become a costly and very prevalent issue worldwide. Large amounts of energy, time and money has been poured into
Organic Compounds contain Carbon, a versatile bonding element due to its ability to form four stable bonds. They can be separated from mixtures and identified through Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). TLC is a simple, and rapid analytical technique that provides qualitative information about a sample. It is based on the principle that different compounds will have different attractions to the stationary and mobile phases. Typically, already characterized compounds can be identified chemically.
As the number of carbon atoms is increased the boiling point of the alkane is also increased. Beginning at 1 carbon atom, the boiling point was -164 degrees. As another carbon atom was added, this boiling point increased. This continued through to 10 carbon atoms which had a boiling point of 174 degrees. In the second graph, it was found that the trend is decreasing. As the number of carbon atoms is increased the melting point of the alkane decreased. Beginning at 1 carbon atom, the melting point was -182 degrees. As another carbon atom was added, this melting point decreased. This continued through to 10 carbon atoms which had a melting point of -30 degrees. Since the two alcohols used in this practical were Methanol and Propanol, the boiling point of those two alkanes were focussed on. According to the graph and table, methane had 1 carbon atom and a boiling point of -164 degrees, while propane had 3 carbon atoms and a boiling point of -42 degrees. When testing the boiling points of these alcohols in the practical experiment, it was found that alcohol A had a boiling point of 68 degrees and alcohol B had a boiling point of 99 degrees.
In the world today, global warming and climate change are one of the main issues with the earth. This issue affects everyone and everything in this world, and even though it seems to be a big problem, most people do not seem to care. The most familiar term is global warming and climate change, but greenhouse gases is one of the main causes and is never mentioned. Greenhouse gases are gases that absorb and emit radiation in the atmosphere, hence makes the earth warmer. The importance of this knowledge of greenhouse gases is so the world will know one of the main causes of global warming and climate change and possibly some
Organic compounds are compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms. In the 1800s, people called compounds that were created by organisms “organic” believing they were different from the compounds in non living things. Even though there is a better understanding of the topic now, the term still stands. Some examples of organic compounds are: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy. Plants, some animals, and other organisms also use carbohydrates for structural purposes. The breakdown of sugars, such as glucose, supplies immediate energy for cell activities. Many organisms store extra sugar as complex carbohydrates known as starches. Starch is only found on plants.
Chemistry has been called the science of what things are. Its intent is the exploration of the nature of the materials that fabricate our physical environment, why they hold the different properties that depict them, how their atomic structure may be fathomed, and how they may be manipulated and changed.
Organic compounds are, by definition, any chemical compound containing carbon. These compounds include carbohydrates, polysaccharides, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Each one of these compounds has a different purpose. Carbohydrates give energy to cells when consumed. Lipids are basically the fats of a cell. Proteins are the building blocks of muscle in a cell. Nucleic acids are used to transfer genetic information from one cell to the other.