Organizational Theory and Behavior
© 1993, David S. Walonick, Ph.D.
Classical Organization Theory
Classical organization theory evolved during the first half of this century. It represents the merger of scientific management, bureaucratic theory, and administrative theory.
Frederick Taylor (1917) developed scientific management theory (often called "Taylorism") at the beginning of this century. His theory had four basic principles: 1) find the one "best way" to perform each task, 2) carefully match each worker to each task, 3) closely supervise workers, and use reward and punishment as motivators, and 4) the task of management is planning and control.
Organizational Behavior Trends
This group and team paper …show more content…
These characteristics may serve as the basis of stereotypes that obscure individual differences; prevent people from getting to know others as individuals; and acutely assessing their performance potential (Hunt, J., Osborn, R., Schermerhorn, J., 2005). On the other hand, the impact of demographic characteristics can promote team members to interact, which can contribute to high performance. Some teams who are subjected to demographic characteristics can learn to respect each member 's perspectives, and share the common organizational task.
The positive impact of cultural diversity on group behavior can contribute creativity to a high-performance team. Membership diversity offers a rich pool of information, talent, and varied perspectives that can help improve team problem solving and increase creativity (Hunt, J., Osborn, R., Schermerhorn, J., 2005). Cultural diversity contributes various group input and group dynamics to the team. These two factors are essential in the high performance of a team. Cultural diversity can develop a high-performance team by allowing the diverse potentials of a team to operate. The negative impact of cultural diversity on group behavior can develop numerous of conflicts between team members. Conflicting interaction can limit or decrease the effectiveness and efficiency of productivity. There should be an awareness of the diverse culture values in order to prevent these conflicts.
There are five stages of
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Creating a team out of individuals can be a challenging task for even the most seasoned human resources professional. Organizations necessarily promote both diversity (and thus individualism) and teamwork. What is an example of how diversity can affect teamwork from your own experience?
Martin J. Kilduff. Kilduff and fellow researchers performed a test of these ideas which included managers from fourteen countries. The results of these tests revealed that the only background diversity variable to affect team performance was age. Ironically, accord to test results, the greater the age diversity among team members, the better the team performed. The test also discovered that only groups with age diversity demonstrated diverse thinking. From this study, researchers also observed that successful teams move in the direction of greater agreement among members while unsuccessful teams moved in the opposite direction. To some extent, teams that narrowed their range of possible strategies at the beginning tended to suffer a downward spiral time went on and as disagreements among team members increased. Teams that kept alive competing interpretations of ideas at the beginning were able to better move toward a consensus in the end (Kilduff, 2000).
Recognizing these disadvantages associated with culturally diverse groups is the first step managers can make in order to make cultural diversity more effective in organizations. To accomplish this effectiveness, there are five traps to avoid when leading a diverse team (Sujansky, 2004). The first trap is "not valuing differences". Each member of a diverse group should be acknowledged as a valuable asset to the function of the group. A key to valuing diversity is an individual willingness to share and receive information about those on the team.
Frederick Taylor was an American, born in 1856. He was an the early management consultants who shot to fame due to his book the 'Principles of Scientific management ' written in 1911. Taylor called it 'scientific management ' but later in time it became to be known as 'Taylorism ' recognising him as the father of this idea. The thought that he came up with was to apply science to the work place in order to obtain 'maximum efficiency ' with the work places out put. He used a systematic system of observing then studying the causes of inefficient in the workplace, then
I have never been as un-motivated as my first semester at graduate school. This lack of motivation was due to one of my class that I have to take at my first semester. My level of motivation was as low as 40 out of 100. This management class was a face to face class and we had to meet once every week.
Frederick W. Taylor's scientific management principles include: Dividing responsibility for work from workers to managers. The manager is the planner and the job designer, the worker is the person who performs the task; Use scientific methods to determine the most effective way of doing things, dividing the work for the worker appropriately, specifying how to accomplish the task; Choose the best person to perform the work as planned; Train employees effectively; Monitor workers to ensure appropriate workflows and from there to achieve corresponding results.
How can an individual’s diversity traits effect a team’s performance or outcome, and what traits make an individual diverse from the rest of the team? If one of the team members happened to be a Buddhist and his
Frederick Taylor was the first person to come up with the theory of Scientific Management and published his book in 1911 called The Scientific Principles of Management. He is know as the father of scientific management as there is a second name to the type of management which is Taylorism(Kanigel and zimmermann, 2005).
Organization behavior including both individual and group, which take an important role on company’s performance, a good manager with high ability to manage the employees’ satisfaction and involvement could achieve a higher performance of the company. In recent years, most of companies used balanced scorecards to determine the companies’ goals to improve the performance, which including employee coaching and mentoring. In this report, we will conduct the performance of a company with the interaction between organization behaviors, employee training and use of balanced scorecards.
Scientific Management also known as Taylorism was theory of management that analyses and meld work flows, was created and developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s within the manufacturing industries.
Classical theory emphasis on increasing employee efficiency at work. It focuses on increasing employee productivity, specialization of work, centralization of decision making and profit maximization. There are three management the
The techniques of the scientific management theory were defined by Frederick W. Taylor. F W Taylor was a manufacturing manager, but he eventually became a consultant. He introduced four principles
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