Origins And Developments Of Quality Assurance

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Origins and Developments in Quality: QA, TQM in HEI

3.1 Introduction
In this chapter the research questions and aims will be addressed through the existing research literature. The chapter discusses educational management and leadership, followed by the literature on Quality Assurance (QA), Total Quality Management (TQM) generally and internationally, including its birth and evolution. The pioneering gurus of TQM are presented. The chapter also discusses QA implementation, followed by common principles derived from the pioneers and experts in the TQM movement and common mistakes expected during implementation. Within this section, I elaborate the arguments to address the requirement of each principle. A separate section then follows,
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Reviewing the original concepts propounded by the likes of Frederick Taylor, Henri Fayol, Max Weber, Mary Parker Follett and so on, and following the prevailing current practices, it would appear that there is agreement on the importance of aspects related to coordination, control, physical and human resources, and on general control over the processes to ensure the completion of set targets (Steers et al., 2010). Generally speaking, management and leadership both entail commonalities and dissimilarities with regard to each other. Thus, Kotter (1990) observed that leadership and management are complementary but distinctive aspects. Hence, as Mckenna (2003: 354) states, management is more concerned with the planning, coordination, supervision, and control of routine activities, while leadership inspires a group of people to perform their best and motivates them to excel in whatever they are doing. Such actions could be reflected in improved outcomes from the efforts made.

Bush and Bell (2006) are of the perspective that taken together, both terms relate to the affirmation of inspiring staff towards achieving set targets and laying out goals, objectives, and missions. Any perceived differences between the two terms are tenuous since efficient organizations require both aspects in
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