In this lab we tested how changing the content of the water affects the speed of the alka seltzer dissolving. My hypothesis was that the tap water would dissolve the tablet fastest, the salt water would be second fastest, and the sugar water would be the slowest. I was correct that the tap water would dissolve the fastest, but I was wrong in that the salt water would dissolve faster than the sugar water. I think that our results came out the way they did because of the amount of sugar and salt we put into the water. When we put the sugar and salt into the beakers, we came up with those measurements on the spot. After the salt and sugar had been added, the salt water was very cloudy, but you could barely tell the tap water from the sugar water.
The goal of this project was to make, and test four soaps, and two detergents. The purpose of making four different soaps and two detergents was needed in order to decide which one would be best for the environmental group to use in the future that would allow for the safest cleanup of an oil spill while not harming the animals or the environment in the process. It was necessary to test the impact of the four soaps and two detergents by analyzing their different properties based off of their specific characteristics and the wastewater left over from the vacuum filtration procedure. This procedure had to be undertaken in order to confirm which of the soaps and detergents synthesized is most
Table 2: Consists of color extract taken from a red cabbage for a natural indicator. The pH reading that was measured by using the pH meter and the result of the pH reading to determine whether the solution was acidic or basic.
Pre-Lab: A) Hydrate- a compound, typically a crystalline one, in which water molecules are chemically bound to another compound or an element. B) Water of hydration (crystallization)- water that is chemically combined with a substance to form a hydrate and can be expelled (as by heating) without essentially altering the composition of the substance. C) Dehydration- the loss or removal of water from something.
2. (5 pts) List and explain the names and affiliations of the various characters/stakeholders in this story – I’m looking for us to use the story to map out the complexities that are generally associated with solving public health puzzles – the stakeholders you list and explain here should apply to many of the cases we consider going forward.
The proof (twice the % alcohol) starts at its maximum and goes down (as the alcohol evaporates). If we start with a high concentration of alcohol, we will get the azeotrope (95% alcohol, 5% water) for a while, then the concentration will decrease.
Procedure- The procedure for this lab includes many simple steps and a few different things we are testing. Our first Procedure was to combine water and salt to see what kind of reaction it would make. First we fill the graduated cylinder with 100 ml of water. We then measured 1.0 grams of table salt on a balance to get an accurate amount. After, we took the measured amount of salt and poured it into the water filled beaker. Lastly, we watched and recorded the reaction.
Neutrogena uses a slow, more expensive manufacturing process to mold its fragile soap. In choosing this position, Neutrogena said no to the deodorants and skin softeners that many customers desire in their soap. It gave up the large-volume potential of selling through supermarkets and using price promotions. It sacrificed manufacturing efficiencies to achieve the soap’s desired attributes. (trade-offs that protected the company from imitators)
As mentioned in the discussion, olive oil, vegetable oil, crisco, and lard were soluble in nonpolar solvents and insoluble in polar solvents. This is due to the chemical composition of polar and nonpolar substances which results from the molecular shape as well as properties of dissolving solutes in solution. Polar substances are hydrophilic and contain polar Van Der Waals interactions (intermolecular forces) such as dipole-dipole forces, ion-dipole forces, and hydrogen bonding. Nonpolar substances are hydrophobic and contain non-polar Van Der Waals interactions. ‘Like dissolve like’ is the reason only polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents and why nonpolar solutes dissolve in nonpolar solvents. Molecules with similar polarity have similar intermolecular forces and therefore, can interact with each, or in this case dissolve9. Additionally, the solubility of a compound is determined by the length of the hydrocarbon chain. Long hydrocarbon chains such as the one found in oleic acid makes a compound more insoluble10. Therefore, since the lipids used in this experiment were hydrophobic substances and each lipid has long hydrocarbon chains, the results were consistent with the scientific literature and principles.
1. Obtain a sample of the mixture. The mixture you will separate contains three components: NaCl, NH4Cl, and SiO2. Their separation will be accomplished by heating the mixture to sub-lime the NH4Cl, extracting the NaCl with water, and drying the remaining SiO2.
The main objective of the distillation lab was to identify the composition of an unknown binary solution. The only known component is that the boiling point of the two components were at least 40˚C apart in boiling points. Due to the difference in boiling points, fractional distillation would be an easy way to determine the identity of each component of the binary solution. In the experiment, 30mL of the unknown binary solution was ran through the fractional distillation apparatus. As the solution boiled, gas from the unknown solution ran through the column, which had a temperature gradient to allow rapid and repeated distillations, and one of the components were isolated. By recording the temperature and amount of
The purpose of this lab was to create soaps and detergents and test their cleaning ability. We created four different soaps and two detergents using different starting materials composed of oils and fats for the soaps and lauryl alcohol and sulfuric acid for the detergents. Soaps are created by a process called saponification, which is the formation of a salt by combing an acid and a base.1 Soap and detergent are effective cleaning agents because they have hydrophilic and hydrophobic ends.1 The hydrophobic ends interact with the dirt and oil while the hydrophilic ends interact with the water molecules effectively washing the dirt and oil away.2 While soaps and detergents are very similar in their cleaning ability, they have a major difference being that soaps are made from natural products and detergents are made from synthetic materials.3 In order to make the soaps, we used four different starting materials including lard, shortening, olive oil, and vegetable oil.