Reducing Toxic Emissions with a Catalytic Converter

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Figure-1 shows an image of a three way catalytic converter block diagram that is comprised of two types of catalysts. Whereby these catalysts don’t take place in any reactions happening but only triggers them. The diagram shows how less harmful gases are produced to the atmosphere by the reduction catalyst and oxidation catalyst.
The three way catalytic converter uses two stages to accomplish the process of reducing toxic emissions, the first stage takes place on the reduction catalyst. The second stage of the process happens on the oxidation catalyst. Platinum and rhodium are the metals used for the reduction catalyst and oxidation catalyst uses platinum and palladium. The use of rhodium is very important because it enhances the purification of the gases to be emitted since palladium does not perform well in the purification process.
Automobile converters reheat the gases (Nitrogen gas, Carbon Dioxide, Hydro carbons, Water vapor, Nitrogen Oxides and Carbon monoxide) that are already heated by the vehicle’s exhaust at about 350°C and 650°C. A ceramic honey comb structure is used for both catalysts; this can be seen in Figure-2. The main reason for specifically using ceramic honey combs is because it increases the surface area, so that when a thin coating of the platinum group metals is used it can spread on a large area. Another reason is to make sure that pressure gradients are reduced and therefore the area of the honey comb be compacted.
The first stage of Figure-1

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