This chapter presents an overview of relevant theoretical research material on self-care activities of the patients with newly diagnosed type-2 diabetes mellitus. The related literature is presented under the following sub headings.
Section A:Literature related to various aspects of type-2 diabetes mellitus.
Section B:Literature related to self-management skills of patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus.
Section C: Reviews related to effectiveness of diabetes education on newly diagnosed patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus.
SECTION A: LITERATURE RELATED TO TYPE-2 DIABETES MELLITUS Diabetes is a metabolic disease in which the body does not produce or properly respond to insulin, a hormone required to convert carbohydrates into energy …show more content…
• Over time, high blood glucose levels affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart.(American Nurses Association, 2012) The role of hyperthyroidism in diabetes was investigated in 1927, by Coller and Huggins proving the association of hyperthyroidism and worsening of diabetes. It was shown that surgical removal of parts of thyroid gland had an ameliorative effect on the restoration of glucose tolerance in hyperthyroid patients suffering from coexisting diabetes. They did a meta-analysis and reported that a frequency of 11% thyroid dysfunction in the patients of diabetes mellitus. Autoimmunity has been implicated to be the major cause of thyroid-dysfunction associated diabetes mellitus. People with type-2 diabetes frequently experience certain symptoms which includes severe thirst, frequent urination, blurry vision, irritability, tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, frequent skin, bladder or gum infections, wounds that don’t heal, extreme unexplained fatigue. In some cases of type-2 diabetes, there are no symptoms. In this case, people can live for months, even years, without knowing they have the disease. This form of diabetes comes on so gradually that symptoms may not even be recognized .By the time the person is diagnosed with diabetes,their pancreas may have lost 50 percent of its insulin-producing
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Diabetes has become an epidemic in today’s society. Diabetes affects almost every system in the body, and with an estimated 346 million people in the world with diabetes, healthcare has been heavily affected by the disease (Ramasamy, Shrivastava, P., & Shrivastava, S., 2013). One of the biggest issues for healthcare workers when it comes to diabetes, is that it is such a complicated disease. With so many different systems being affected, medical professionals have had to learn how the disease process works, what causes diabetes to work through the systems, and the best treatments to address all these issues. Through much research, the healthcare system has grown very knowledgeable on diabetes. One important aspect of treating diabetes has been in the introduction of diabetic education. In the past, nurses and dieticians had been responsible for educating patients on diabetes, but now that role is also extended to other people in the healthcare team, including the patient (Tomky, 2013). In fact, patients taking an active role in the education process, including learning to self-care has now become a priority in diabetes treatment. The following paper will discuss diabetic education, the importance of self-care and how this affects a patient’s compliance.
Diabetes is a disease that causes the human body to not create or not use insulin effectively. The body needs insulin to take the energy or sugars and turn it into energy. The human body needs energy to survive. Diabetes can be broken into three main categories. Type 1 diabetes is where the body makes no insulin at all. Type 2 diabetes is where the body does not produce enough insulin or it does not use it correctly. Gestational diabetes is more of a type 2 diabetes for pregnant women, which usually returns to normal after birth (Ruder 7-8).
Retrieved from http://www.ebrary.com The purpose for this source is teach diabetics how to prevent acute and long term complications and to improve quality of life and avoid premature diabetes associated with death. In this source the topic of how to live with diabetes, the advance of health information on diabetes and Medicine and self-management of diabetes. Successful diabetes management relies on successful patient engagement as well as medical treatment, and regular assessment of education needs is as important as medical care. I found this information in the online library.
Diabetes Mellitus is the metabolic disorder characterized by high levels of blood glucose that is caused by deficiency of production of insulin, action of insulin, or may be both of them. The uncontrollable output of hepatic glucose and reduced uptake of glucose by the skeletal muscle with reduced synthesis of glycogen lead to hyperglycaemia. Diabetes is a complicated disease; it can affect mostly every organ of our body and causes devastating consequences.
Diabetes is a disease that causes an abnormally high level of sugar, or glucose, to build up in the blood. Glucose comes from food we consume and also from our liver and muscles. Blood delivers glucose to all the
The sample for this longitudinal quasi-experimental study consisted of 150 adults (18 years old and above) with diabetes type 2. The criteria required to become a participant included: owning a cellphone, accepting 9 months of commitment, and no presentation of complications in the last 6 months. The participants completed several sessions of diabetes self-management education prior to the initiation of the research. Once the training culminated, the subjects were asked to pick one out of the three groups. The members of the first group were to receive the traditional face to face visit with a diabetes specialist (n=47). The second and third group consisted of follow-up interventions via phone calls (n=44) and secure text messages (n=59), respectively. The diabetes self-management support (DSMS) survey was used to measure the behavioral goals, while HbAc1 and LDL exams were
Long-term effects of diabetes can cause many serious complications: heart disease, stroke, blindness, amputations, and kidney disease and nerve damage. These complications are usually progressive and develop over time due to poor control of blood glucose levels. High blood glucose levels cause a narrowing of all the vessels, blockage, and high blood pressure.
Diabetes is a common chronic disease that causes problems in the way the blood uses food. The inability of the body to transform the sugar into energy is called diabetes. Glucose, a simple sugar, is the primary source of fuel for our bodies. When food is digested, some of the food will be converted into glucose which is then transferred from the blood into the cells however, insulin, which is produced by beta cells in the pancreas is needed. In individuals with diabetes, this process is impaired.
Diabetes mellitus (sometimes called "sugar diabetes") is a condition that occurs when the body can 't use glucose (a type of sugar) normally. Glucose is the main source of energy for the body 's cells. The levels of glucose in the blood are controlled by a hormone called insulin, which is made by the pancreas. Insulin helps glucose enter the cells.
The tools for the project plan includes an Omani Self-Management Survey also called diabetes self-management (DSM) ( Appendix G) and the Diabetes Self-Management and Education Assessment Scoring (Appendix H). DSM consists of a twenty questions survey that are a life-long journey that patients to adjust to a new lifestyle, make decisions, and perform specific tasks (Alrahbi, 2014). However, diabetes self-management education (DSME) is a five part score questionnaire that is an element of care for all people with diabetes and those at risk of developing the disease. Furthermore, the National Standards for Diabetes Self-Management Education supports and assist diabetes educators in providing evidence-based education and self-management support.
The authors of this journal article initiated research into this subject by entering certain key words related to self-management techniques and practices for type 2 diabetes in three major journal research engines. What is notable about this process is that the literature review that accompanies most research documents actually doubled as the actual research performed itself, since the authors merely analyzed the studies and findings of the journal articles they deemed relevant to their review of existing literature. The initial titles that
The self-management program discussed was a systematic review, with the analysis of randomised controlled trials. Those who participated in the study were adults who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. As long as the patient had type 2 diabetes, they were able to participate in the study. The study included education sessions on type 2 diabetes which lasted for at least an hour. The control group must have had standard treatment, remained on a waiting list or received no
Diabetes self-management education (DSME) is an essential strategy for controlling Type 2 Diabetes. The DSME aims to modify lifestyle and to promote self-management practices, thereby promoting positive metabolic outcomes (Ghafoor, Riaz, Eichorst, Fawwad & Basit, 2015). Rural district nurses provide diabetes education for their clients by promoting client engagement, regular assessment and encouraging clients to follow medical advice (Dunning, 2013).
Diabetes is a major problem in our society today. Many people have heard about the disease; however, they do not know too much about its complications. Diabetes is a chronic, progressive and lifelong condition that affects the body’s ability to use the energy found in food (WebMD, 2016). Many new cases are confirmed every year and unfortunately, many go undiagnosed for years. Diabetes is a serious disease and need to be taking seriously. The disease can lead to many other health problems such as blindness, nerve damage and kidney diseases. The more the community understand and made aware of the seriousness of the disease, the better it can be control and or prevented.
Diabetes is a chronic condition in which the body produces too little insulin (Type One Diabetes) or can’t use available insulin efficiently ( Type Two Diabetes). Insulin is a hormone vital to helping the body use digested food for growth and energy.