Self-Care of Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus

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This chapter presents an overview of relevant theoretical research material on self-care activities of the patients with newly diagnosed type-2 diabetes mellitus. The related literature is presented under the following sub headings.
Section A:Literature related to various aspects of type-2 diabetes mellitus.
Section B:Literature related to self-management skills of patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus.
Section C: Reviews related to effectiveness of diabetes education on newly diagnosed patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus.
SECTION A: LITERATURE RELATED TO TYPE-2 DIABETES MELLITUS Diabetes is a metabolic disease in which the body does not produce or properly respond to insulin, a hormone required to convert carbohydrates into energy
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• Over time, high blood glucose levels affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart.(American Nurses Association, 2012) The role of hyperthyroidism in diabetes was investigated in 1927, by Coller and Huggins proving the association of hyperthyroidism and worsening of diabetes. It was shown that surgical removal of parts of thyroid gland had an ameliorative effect on the restoration of glucose tolerance in hyperthyroid patients suffering from coexisting diabetes. They did a meta-analysis and reported that a frequency of 11% thyroid dysfunction in the patients of diabetes mellitus. Autoimmunity has been implicated to be the major cause of thyroid-dysfunction associated diabetes mellitus. People with type-2 diabetes frequently experience certain symptoms which includes severe thirst, frequent urination, blurry vision, irritability, tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, frequent skin, bladder or gum infections, wounds that don’t heal, extreme unexplained fatigue. In some cases of type-2 diabetes, there are no symptoms. In this case, people can live for months, even years, without knowing they have the disease. This form of diabetes comes on so gradually that symptoms may not even be recognized .By the time the person is diagnosed with diabetes,their pancreas may have lost 50 percent of its insulin-producing
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