Models of Abnormality Abnormalities, causes and treatment vary with the different perspectives. Abnormal behavior causes deviance, distress, dysfunction and/or danger (Comer, 2012). Researchers have formed their own models explaining abnormality. Biology, the mysteries of the unconscious, behavior, thought processes, self-awareness and relationships with society and cultures have influenced the six models of abnormality along with treatment methods for each.
Biological Model The biological model is based on a medical/physical perspective to abnormality. Dysfunction is the product of physical malfunctions such as brain messages not functioning properly and certain inherited genes. Poor message transmission can cause depression while inherited genes can lead to mood disorders and schizophrenia (Suinn, 1988). Treatments such as drug therapy, occur when physical causes of the abnormality are found. Drug therapy uses drugs that effect one’s emotional process and thought process. For example, antidepressants would be given to someone that has depression to elevate the mood, while antipsychotic drugs would help alleviate hallucinations and delusions for one with psychotic disorders (Comer, 2012). The biological model focuses on curing physical ailments for abnormality while others focus on the mind and the environment as the sole cause for abnormality.
The Psychodynamic Model The psychodynamic model has abnormalities stemming from the mind. Forces from the environment are at
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One of the first differences in the perspective is that the biological perspective is more empirical than the psychoanalytic perspective. The biological approach uses scientific methodology which ensures that the results obtained are more reliable (Jarvis, 200). On the other hand, the cause and effect cannot always be determined for example, are there higher levels of a neurotransmitter when a person has a disorder or are the high levels of neurotransmitter the cause of having a disorder. However, the psychoanalytic approach is less empirical as it is based on subjective observations that were made by Freud and most of this work was not a good representation sample of the population (Eysenck, 2000).
(P1)The biological approach means that our behavior is the cause of biological factors. This approach looks at our genetics to construct a reason why we act the way we do and why we develop abnormal behaviors. The brain and nervous system are the biological approach and so are chemical changes in the body .This can mean chemical reactions in the brain. For instance, in eating disorders - twin studies were carried out and it was shown that if one identical twin suffered from an eating disorder then the other twin would also be more likely to suffer from a disorder as well. This did not happen with non-identical twins, suggesting that the
The biological model, or medical model, emerged in the late nineteenth century following the discovery of the correlation between brain damage and abnormal behavior. The critical assumption of the
The medical model focuses on the molecular structure of drugs and indicators of mental or emotional disorders. However, the medical model is not effective treating mental and emotional disorders. The medical model indicts the notion that abnormal behavior is the product of physical problems and be treated medically. The medical model depends upon independent tests to demonstrate or contradict if a patient is ill. The psychological model uses tests to demonstrate or contradict whether a patient is ill. It is at this point of agreement that the two models separate. A restriction to the psychological model is if a patient that is unconscious, or their communication ability is compromised to the degree that they are
Defining Abnormality With Consideration of Cultural Differences Cultural differences are always a problem when defining abnormality. What one would consider completely normal in one culture would be considered abnormal in another, for example the island of Java often set fire to a ball soaked in petrol and then play football with it. Here that would be considered wrong and abnormal but is an everyday occurrence for the people of Java. This concept doesn't only apply to eastern cultures; the English could be defined as abnormal by other cultures definitions, even by other western societies e.g. it would not be considered normal by the Italians to wait at a red light when there are no other cars
12. Describe and give an example exemplifying the tension between explanations of mental illness based on the medical model and those based on the psychological model.
According to Mathers et al., (1996) “Schizophrenia ranks among the top ten causes of disability worldwide and affects one in one hundred people at some point in their lives.” (Cardwell and Flanagan, 2012). Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder which is commonly diagnosed in 15-30 year old individuals. It disrupts a person’s cognition, perceptions and emotions, making it extremely difficult to diagnose. Bleuler (1911) introduced the term schizophrenia, which translates as ‘split-mind’ or ‘divided self’ and accounts for the earlier interpretations of the disease. These misunderstandings and the ongoing misrepresentations, especially within the media, has stigmatised the illness. This raises the need for better understanding and
The poster is going to outline the definition of abnormality and describe two diagnostic classification systems whilst referencing the diagnostic criteria for Schizophrenia and an overlook of its subtype catatonic schizophrenia.
The biomedical model of health takes into account the physical or biological quality of life and is widely used in the Western medicine approach to health (Gurung, 2104). A basic assumption of this model is that the mind and body connection is irrelevant. Many advances in medicine have occured because of the biomedical model of health. In using evidence-based medicine it has been possible to evaluate the results of clinical and pharmaceutical research in order to make strides in medicine (Ashton, 1999). It takes advantage of algorithmic treatment options. Even though this approach may be more difficult for a psychiatrist to utilize when diagnosing and treating a patient, this model has radically shaped psychotherapy research and psychiatric medication (Deacon, 2013). The biomedical approach lends itself more readily to research because of its quantitative nature and it is less subjective than the biopsychosocial approach when measuring emotions and culture.
There are the Physiological, Psychological, Behavioral, and Environmental and Sociological explanations. The Physiological explanation is the genetic and chemical causes of mental illness. Psychological explanations view mental disorders as an outgrowth of a person’s personality development. The Behavioral explanation concentrates on behavior and view it as a set of learned responses resulting from a combination of rewards and punishments. Lastly, the Environmental and Sociological takes into account the environmental and social factors.
What is the biomedical approach to mental health? "The biomedical model of mental illness assumes that abnormal psychological states or experiences are the results of abnormalities in the brain or genetics and, as such, necessitate medical or chemical
The Strengths and Limitations of the Biological Model of Abnormality This model uses physical illness as a model for psychological disorder, suggesting that like physical illness, mental illness has an underlying bodily cause. It proposes that genetic, organic or chemical disorders cause metal illnesses which give rise to behavioural and psychological problems. Thus, abnormality has physical causes such as brain dysfunction (neurological), biochemical imbalances, infections or genetics and so can only be cured through medical treatments. Therefore it implies that abnormality results from properly
There are several models of abnormality in use today (Comer, 2009) lists “The Biological Model…”, “The Psychodynamic Model…”, The Behavioral Model…”, The Cognitive Model…”, The Humanistic-Existential Model…”, The Sociocultural Model…” (p.33). The biggest contrasts would be the Biological model, and the other models. Comparing the biological model, and the cognitive model will highlight those differences.