ASHA defines dysarthria as “A neurological motor speech disorder affecting the strength, range of motion, speed, and precision of the speech musculature” (ASHA, 2017). There are several congenital and acquired causes for this disorder including: traumatic brain injury, tumors, degenerative diseases, strokes, toxic and metabolic conditions. The damage causes paralysis, weakness, or lack of coordination of the the muscles involved in articulating speech, which results in reduced intelligibility. Dysarthria affects the respiration, phonation, resonance, prosody, and articulation of speech. Spastic dysarthria; results from a lesion in the upper motor neurons and causes spasticity of the muscles. A lesion in on the lower motor neurons resulting
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The first time I realized I was different was in second grade, when I opened my mouth to answer a question and my peers giggled as I struggled to answer. I pronounced my R's like W's, which threw my whole pronunciation of the English language into a twist. My previously "adorable" lapses in speech were now affecting me negatively. I was different than the rest of my classmates; I had been born with a speech disorder.
Spastic cerebral palsy is a neurological disorder that unfolds in the developing brain - either right before birth or shortly after, typically before the child turns one year of age. Head injuries that occur several weeks after birth may also cause spastic cerebral palsy. Spastic cerebral palsy makes up roughly eighty percent of all cerebral palsy cases, since there are other types; spastic is considered to be the most common. Spastic cerebral palsy causes neuromuscular mobility impairment meaning that there is a lack in connection between the nerves and muscles.
While speech-sound errors may occur in a typically developing child, if these errors persist beyond the expected age, it becomes indicative of a speech disorder and requires treatment (Peña-Brooks & Hedge, 2015). Speech-sound disorders in children will not only affect intelligibility of the individual, but can also have pervasive effects on communication skills, social involvement, and future employment, leading to an overall reduced quality of life (Johnson, Beitchman, and Brownlie, 2010). However, if individuals with speech-sound disorders receive speech-language services in childhood, evidence supports these children are likely to become effective communicators (Johnson, Beitchman, and Brownlie, 2010). Speech-language pathologists
Cerebral Palsy can be described as a condition where life long problems affect movements and postural development due to lesions in an immature brain. These lesions are non-progressive, meaning that they will not get any worse. 3(p1-2) Physical and Neurological exams are required in order to diagnose this condition. A doctor will use a CT scan, MRI, or an ultrasound machine to verify brain damage. Many children diagnosed can also have sensory disabilities, cognitive disorders, convulsions, and communication and behavioral disorders. Spastic Diplegia gets its name because the children diagnosed have increased muscle tone that leads to spasticity. Spasticity can be defined as stiff or tight muscles and amplified reflexes. The exact cause of Spastic Diplegia still remains unknown. Besides damage to the part of the brain that controls movement, there are other possible reasons for a child to develop Spastic Diplegia. These reasons can vary from genetic abnormalities, congenital brain deformities, or if the mother has an infection or high fever while pregnant.
SPLP 635 - Voice Disorders. Voice Disorders is part of the core curriculum in the master’s degree program in speech-language pathology, approved by the American Speech-Language and Hearing Association (ASHA), and the accrediting body for professional training programs in speech-language pathology, CAA-CSD. This graduate level course is designed to provide students with knowledge of normal voice including the vocal parameters of pitch, intensity, quality, resonance and flexibility. Various idiopathic, structural, resonance, neuropathologic, and congenital disorders of voice are addressed in terms of symptomatology, perceptual features, diagnosis, prevention, and intervention. The course provides a survey of voice disorders that students
Speech pathology focuses on aiding individuals who struggle with or cannot use their voice. Without a voice, individuals would not be able to communicate with one another face to face, or even talk on the phone. Within every field, controversy exists. In speech pathology, one such controversy is nonspeech oral motor exercises (NSOME), where a patient does different tasks involving their mouth or fingers. These exercises are believed to have no connection with actually assisting the speech pathological part of the brain, since they do not involve any sort of speech activity. Nonspeech oral motor exercises do not assist in the healing process of patients with actual disabilities, nor are they an efficient practice at a professional treatment center.
Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders that share the primary feature of progressive lower limb spasticity and weakness, with sparing of the upper extremities (Blackstone et al., 2010). Although few epidemiological studies have been carried out, the prevalence of HSPs has been estimated to range from ~3-9 per 100,000 and the age of onset can vary widely, from early childhood to late in life (Salinas et al., 2008). The HSPs are classified according to the mode of inheritance (autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive and X-linked) and whether progressive spasticity occurs in isolation (uncomplicated HSP) or is accompanied by additional clinical features such as ataxia, seizures, cognitive impairment and peripheral neuropathy (complicated HSP) (Fink, 2013).
Adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) is a voice disorder due to central motor processing abnormalities which result in decreased control of the laryngeal muscles (Blitzer, 2010). The idiopathic disorder is characterized by involuntary spasms of the laryngeal muscles controlling vocal fold adduction (National Spasmodic Dysphonia Association, 2012). The dysphonic characteristics presented by patients with ADSD are described as strained, strangled, and effortful due to irregular adductions of the vocal folds and the occlusion of air through the vocal tract during phonation(Blitzer,2010; Cannito, Doiuchi, Murry &Woodson, 2012). Patients with muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) present with similar perceptual vocal characteristics however, treatment for the two disorders is quite different. Speech-language pathologists often have difficulty diagnosing and distinguishing between ADSD, a neurological disorder, and MTD, a functional voice disorder (Rees et al., 2007). Correct diagnosis is important and objective measures, such as spectral analysis, are more sufficient in distinguishing the two disorders(Rees et al., 2007).
Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a group of inherited (genetically) heterogeneous neurologic disorders identified by lower limb muscle weakness and spasticity (Fink JK, 2000). Symptoms slowly advance, eventually leading to patients requiring a walking aid such as a cane or walker or a wheelchair if the disability is more severe. There are more than 70 different genes that cause this disorder. Complicated forms of the disorder can often lead to other symptoms such as retinopathy, epilepsy, peripheral neuropathy, mental retardation and deafness. Most individuals with uncomplicated forms of the disorder i.e. no other accompanying neurologic abnormalities have a normal life expectancy (Ninds.nih.gov, 2017). HSPs affect 3-10 per 100,000
During my time as an undergraduate, I was able to work as a research apprentice under the mentorship of Dr. Kuruvilla-Dugdale as she started her neurogenic communication disorders lab. The goal of the research project was to identify changes in speech in persons with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) that are significant to this population. Currently, few measures can identify cognitive and communication changes at an earlier stage or its rate of progression; therefore, this research focused on determining the underlying changes in cognition and articulatory movement as the disease progresses is pertinent. This project is a critical first step towards identifying sensitive cognitive and speech measures that can be used to improve early detection and progression prediction. This type of research holds important clinical implications that may impact current diagnostic practices and can consequently improve the timing of AAC referrals. The opportunity to witness firsthand the significant clinical contributions that research can impact sparked an interest in me to be able to do the same with my own
I am first generation in this country and the first generation to attend college. What this entitles is that I got lucky to be part of a wonder country and to learn and do many things my parents never did. With the acceptance to the University of Fresno, and the transition and freedom, came many uncertainties on how to do well in college. My first two years were the best and the worst time in my life. It is bittersweet memories now, sweet because I had the greatest time meeting new people and traveling all over California. It was my exploring age; I have never traveled outside of my hometown, and it was exhilarating to experience many new things. It is bitter because I now know that I put my future profession at stake unwilling knowing it.
Over the history of our world, speech impediments affect many different people. Most of the time, individuals do not even realize the person they are speaking with has a speech disorder. This disorder even impacts icons including Greek philosopher Aristotle, physicist Isaac Newton, singer Elvis Presley, golfer Tiger Woods and actor Bruce Willis. However, one story that stands out involves Kind George VI of England. In his early childhood the prince acquired a stammer; now known mostly as a stutter. He went to a speech therapist, on a regular basis, who taught him how to use the muscles in his mouth to correct his stutter. His therapist also dove into psychological reason that explained why most of his concerns included talking to important people. After some time of seeing his doctor frequently, he improved immensely on his enunciation that he could get through radio session that seemed impossible beforehand. This disorder not only affects icons, like King George, but also a vast majority of children. In the United states alone, stuttering effects five percent of all people (Braunstein). This does not include other speech impediments like lisps and apraxia. Although the exact cause of speech impediments is unknown, studies proves that the disorders can come from genetics, neurological problems, or even psychological like King George. There are also a lot of different way to help correct speech impediments. Nevertheless, the best path for patients to take includea seeing a
Articulation disorders can present its way in a large array of severity. For a basic inability to pronounce word clearly to being unable to communicate intelligible to others. This disorder may be hard diagnoses and treat. When articulations issues happen it should not be taken lightly or ignored.
Dystonia is a neurological condition that affects a muscle or a group of them, causing involuntary movements and contractions. It´s called Focal Dystonia when it´s very focused on a specific area of the body. In the case of Musician´s Dystonia it appears in the parts of the body that they mostly use: Vocal cords for singers, hands for guitar, violin players, etc. Musician´s dystonia is in almost all the cases Focal, not affecting a wide range of parts of the body.
According to Spencer and Slocomb (2007), Ataxic dysarthria is a result of damage to the cerebellum and or cerebellar control circuit. Common etiologies of ataxic dysarthria include degenerative diseases or vascular diseases resulting in lesions to the cerebellum or cranial nerves. An individual with cerebellar damage will experience difficulties with motor functioning involving the ability to stand and walk properly. Common motor signs resulting in ataxic dysarthria include a wide based gait and limb, nystagmus, hypotonia and dysmetria. Deviant speech characteristics associated with ataxic dysarthria include articulatory, phonatory and prosody difficulties. Speech may sound slurred while including distorted vowel production, prolonged phonemes,