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The Benefits of Propolis

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Use of natural products, especially nutraceuticals is gaining much importance in aquaculture practices for controlling the diseases, since they can be easily incorporated into the diet along with a low impact on the environment. Among many different nutraceuticals, propolis has drawn the attention of the researchers as it has several biological and pharmacological properties. Propolis is a dark-brown, resinous material collected by bees from exudates and buds of flowers, mixed with beeswax and β-gucosidase (Pietta et al., 2002). The word propolis (from Greek, pro = for or in defence, and polis = city) shows its importance to bees, since they use it to seal holes in the hives to protect the colony from infection and to cover carcasses of intruders who die inside the hive, avoiding their decomposition (Bankova et al., 2000 and Sforcin et al., 2011). Propolis has been used as medicine due to its diverse biological and pharmacological properties such as immunomodulatory, antitumor, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant etc. (Bankova et al., 2000). Its chemical composition includes more than 200 constituents (Marcucci, 1995) for which its biological properties are diverse. Propolis generally consists of 50% vegetable balsams and resins, 30% wax, 10% essential oils, 5% pollen and 5% various other substances (Burdock, 1998). The major constituents of propolis are flavones, flavanones, cinnamic acid, diterpenic acid, polyprenylated benzophenones, caffeic acid esters,
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