A child who was exposed or, experienced violence suffers multiply negative physical and mental health outcomes. Violence is especially distressing for smaller children, because they spend more time with their parents. Since, smaller children rely more on their parents to protect them and make their environment safe. Violence at home creates a stressful environment and also health problems that carries on into their adulthood. Exposure to violence at home may teach a child to learn to be more aggressive, fight and have antisocial behavior. Children who are exposed to violence at home have lower levels of self-esteem and social skills. “Research shows that the exposure to family violence during the early years when the capacity for emotion regulation is growing and children attachment to parents is strongest. It is important for children to feel wanted and can trust parents. If the trust is broken it’s disrupt child’s attachment and brain development. The plasticity of a child’s brain development have both negative and positive outcome. Positive in which a child is open to learn new things, but is also negative because the earliest stage is “vulnerable to development problems should their environment prove especially impoverished or un-nurturing.” Even though a child is exposed to traumatic events, they can be help by confronting. The first step to helping young children cope and heal is respond to the child needs when they cry. Since the child already face lack of
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Believe it or not exposure to violence affects children in many ways. Children are like sponges they absorb everything they see. Children who are exposed to violence in their homes become fearful, anxious, and never feel safe. They are always worried for themselves, their mother, and their siblings. They may even feel worthless and powerless. Many children will keep the abuse a secret and not tell anyone but as time progresses they will think that it’s their fault and that that’s why the violence is occurring. Children exposed to abuse can look normal to the
(Brescoll & Graham-Bermann, 2000, p.2). Another mental health problem that children who have witnessed domestic violence experience is adjustment problems. There appears to be a wide spread belief that children who witness violence between their parents are at a greater risk of later adjustment difficulties that may include behavior problems (Fergusson & Horwood, 1998, p.3). Young people reporting high levels of exposure to inter-parental violence had elevated rates of adjustment problems by age eighteen (Fergusson & Horwood, 1998, p.1). It is suggested that there are elevated rates of behavioral, emotional, and other problems in children exposed to inter-parental violence (Fergusson & Horwood, 1998, p.3). There seems little doubt that children reared in homes characterized by inter-parental violence were at greater risk of later adjustment difficulties as young adults (Fergusson & Horwood, 1998, p.11). It is quite apparent that there is a link between the witnessing of domestic violence and the mental health problems of the children who witness it.
Children react to their environment in different ways, and those reactions can vary, depending on the child 's gender and age. Children exposed to family violence are more likely to develop behavioral, emotional, psychological, and social problems than those who are not. Recent research indicates that children who witness domestic violence show anger and temperament problems, depression, low self-esteem, and more anxiety than children who do not witness violence in the home. The trauma they experience can show up in behavioral, physical, social, and emotional disturbances that affect their development and can continue into adulthood.
The formative experiences that define a child's home life will have a lasting impact on the individual as he or she enters the later stages of childhood, adolescence and adulthood. The degree to which one's family life is loving, nurturing, supportive and attentive is a substantial determinant in emotional, social and intellectual development. Accordingly, a home which is abusive, violent, negative and neglectful is more than likely to have deleterious effects for the child both while and well after maintaining residence there. This turns us toward the focus of the present study, which is the impact levied by domestic violence on children.
According to the United States department of Justice, Over sixty percent of American children are exposed to a type of violence every year (Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., Ormrod, R., Hamby, S., and Kracke, K. 2009). These forms of violence can be perpetrated by a victims home, community or school, with majority of children knowing the perpetrator(s). These experiences with violence whether primary or secondary, can cause serious psychological trauma to a child and in worst case scenarios death. The 2009 survey by the Department of Justice also found that children exposed to any form of violence were more likely to engage in violence in the future and almost forty percent of these children were exposed to multiple acts of violence ( pg.2). The
Infants and small children who are exposed to violence in the home experience so much added emotional stress that it can harm the development of their brains and impair cognitive and sensory growth.13 Behaviour changes can include excessive irritability, sleep problems, emotional distress, fear of being alone, immature behaviour, and problems with toilet training and language development.14 At an early age, a child’s brain is becoming ‘hard-wired’ for later physical and emotional functioning. Exposure to domestic violence threatens that
Although this was the last major data call regarding the number of children exposed to violence in the home, many studies over the last decade have been able to link adverse health effects to children exposed to violence. These include psychological comorbidities, developmental delays, and a likelihood of subsequent violent acts perpetrated by adults that were exposed to violence in the home as
Exposure to domestic violence can impact the behavioral, social-emotional, and cognitive development of children. Children who are exposed to domestic violence tend to exhibit more aggressive behaviors with their peers, show signs of depression, and have a difficult time forming relationships (Brown & Bzostek, 2003). Cognitively, studies have shown that children exposed to domestic violence may have difficulties learning and concentrating in school, have difficulties with conflict resolution skills, and may believe in male privilege, (Brown & Bzostek, 2003). Concentration is difficult for children exposed to domestic violence because of how unsafe they may feel in their surroundings. They may be preoccupied with the violence that is
As seen in the previous studies, children living in domestic violent homes not only have to face the direct violence that is happening at the moment, but also have to face the indirect change that is brought after the violence has occurred. Using a sample of 100 women and their children ages 3-5, the study conducted by Huth-Bocks, Levendosky, and Semel (2001) examined maternal psychological functioning and its impact of the quality of the home environment in a domestic violent household. After observing these indirect variables, assessments were made to determine if domestic violence had indirect affects on children’s intellectual functioning (Huth-Bocks, Levendosky, & Semel, 2001).
Through this article, we learn that infants who experience domestic violence have trouble sleeping and eating, while older children develop a change in behavior and anxiety (McFarlane et al. 2003; Hornor, 2005). Boys who experience violence in the home tend to be more aggressive and disobedient. While on the other hand, girls who experience violence in the home tend to be more introverted and depressed. Nonetheless, both genders are impacted negatively by domestic violence.
According to the World Health Organization (2014), violence is defined as “the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation.” Sanctuary for Families estimates that between 2.3 and 10 million adolescents witness such aggressive behavior and violence within their own home each year in the United States (2014). Further, Sanctuary for Families indicates “that children who witness such violence are at risk for maladaptive responses in one or more of the following areas of functioning: (a) behavioral, (b) emotional, (c) social, (d) cognitive, and (e) physical.” They suggest, “adolescents who have grown up in violent homes are at
Children learn very early about right and wrong. The exposure to violence at a young age can have an effect on a person’s development and behavior as an adult. Children who witness violence often are more aggressive. Those rejected by their parents are more likely to experience PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder) and problems with social information processing, which can lead to violence toward their intimate partners. A violent upbringing and a lack of early positive experiences, increases a child’s tendency to become violent in the future.
The amount of violence a child is exposed to while they are young has also been studied to see if it may play a role in their violence towards animals as a child and towards humans later in their lives. A study conducted in the mid 2000’s looked at 47 mothers who had children exposed to family violence and 45 mothers with two children who were not exposed to any family violence. The study showed that there was a significant difference in the likelihood that children exposed to violence would also display violent acts of cruelty towards animals. The children who were exposed to father and mother violence/abuse more often displayed acts of violence towards animals than children who were not exposed to this violence (Currie 430). Another study that interviewed 152 aggressive and nonaggressive criminals showed that the aggressive criminals displayed a higher amount of violence towards animals than criminals who were not aggressive. The aggressive criminals who displayed acts of cruelty towards animals had a significantly higher chance that they were exposed to parental abuse and alcoholism as a child than the nonaggressive criminals (Kellert & Felthous 1113).
In April 2008 at Taylor Elementary, a K-5 school in Hunting Park, a male child held a knife against the throat of a classmate and threatened to “cut off his head if he snitched” (Snyder 1). This student, like many other kindergarten students across the world, is extremely violent. This stems from the student’s violent environment in which he is being raised. Hunting Park, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is a neighborhood filled with poverty and most importantly a high violent crime rate. Children who witness domestic and neighborhood violence become more violent themselves because they become less sensitive to violence, accept violence as normal behavior, and are also at risk for severe behavioral and psychological problems.
The past few weeks of our gender studies class we have been discussing institutionalized violence. Our class has took an in depth look at how violence is subsequently lived privately and publicly ignored. Meaning these victims live a paralleled life, one private and another public. My family has a history of violence on my mothers side. She grew up with an abusive mother, this abuse still affects her to this day. Having his misconduct so close to me, I have seen the detrimental side effects it can lead to. There are many different types of abuse from verbal, physical, neglect, cultural and many others. Much of the violence we have discussed in class has been related to institutions. Such as the Chesney- Lind and Irwin and the school to prison pipeline readings. These readings and videos showed us how violence and crime is correlated inside of certain institutions. The children at NH experience much of the discrimination and violence already and there is the possibility it will only get worse at they grow with age. In this paper I will go over two of the reading we were assigned the past few weeks of class. The first is the Badness to Meanness reading which discussed the rise of female violence and bullying. The next article I will be going over is the prison to pipeline reading. Both of these tie directly into institutionalized violence and how much of it is privately live and publicly ignored.