The First Path Of Formation Of The Kazakh Diaspora
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Repression was blown to frightening enormous proportions. Repressions even reached the "traditional knowledge holders" - Kazakh shamans-"baksi", which J. Assmann calls special carriers of cultural memory .
During this period, the trend of migration had been strengthened, and about a million ethnic Kazakhs was forced to migrate from their historic homeland to neighboring countries. It was the first path of formation of the Kazakh Diaspora, but there was also a second way: "creation of state borders separated part of the kazakh people and made it difficult to communicate with the main ethnic masses" , this process in science is called irredentism . Thus, in the second half of the XIX century after the establishment of the Russian-Chinese border part of Kazakhs who had been wintering in the former Qing Empire territory was in the allegiance of China. Subsequently, in 1916 after the suppression of the anti-colonial rebellion in 1932-1934. During dispossession, collectivisation and famine some Kazakh tribes migrated from Kazakhstan to Xinjiang and took Chinese citizenship . The main concentration of the Kazakh migrant fell on Russia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Turkey, Mongolia and China.
Due to the special historical and political circumstances, one nation was artificially "split" into two parts "repatriates" and "local", which naturally provoke the break of once united culture in two, conventionally called “oralman" and "local” culture. Both of these