The Fungal Diseases Of Pea

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Pea is liable to be attack by many bacterial, fungal, viral, nematode diseases in addition to physiological disorder. However, fungal diseases, especially rust is considered one of the major destructive diseases affecting the crop yield (Hagedron, 1984 and Kraft, and Pfleger, 2001), especially in the north and middle parts of the Delta in Egypt and several countries in the world (Abada et al., 1997; Gupta and Shayam, 1998 and Parilli et al., 2015). The fungus Uromyces pisi is a heteroecious rust pathogen, completing its life cycle on two host plant species. The sexual stages are completed on Euphorbia cyparissias (cypress spurge), while the asexual lifecycle stages are completed on leguminous crop hosts such as Lathyrus, Orobus, Pisum and …show more content…

The nectar contains fungal gametes (spermatia) that are transferred by nectar feeding insects (including bees and ants) from one fungal mating type to another. Once fertilization has occurred, aeciospores are released which infect leguminous host plants including field peas. Managing plant diseases with fungicides sometimes gives good results. However, improper use of fungicides leads mostly to environmental pollution, disasters throughout the world and the phenomena of resistance to the causal pathogens (Brewer and Larkin, 2005). Therefore, to overcome these difficulties, it is urgent to apply alternative safe efficient methods against such disease or at least rationalization their application. Biological control is considered an important approach of agricultural biotechnology in recent years for controlling many fungal plant pathogens. Both Bacillus and Trichoderma spp. are the most promising and effective bioagents against various plant pathogenic fungi (Deshmukh et al., 2010; Barakat et al., 2014 and Ragab et al., 2015). Trichoderma as antagonist is much more complex, that is nutrient competition, hyperparasitism, antibiosis, space and cell wall degrading enzymes (Abd-El-Khair et al., 2010 and Junid et al., 2013). It was also found that there is a large variety of volatile secondary metabolites produced by Trichoderma spp. such as ethylene, carbon dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, aldehydes and ketones

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