This study was carried out among the psychology students in university under experimental conditions. Purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which we are able to directly perceive the retinal image. 158 second year undergraduate psychology students enrolled at the ANU participated in the experiment of shape constancy of circle, where the viewing distance was altered into three conditions, and the participants were asked to choose the shape that best fitted the retinal image perceived at each distance. The results obtained demonstrated that in absolute terms, participants in all conditions showed a significant phenomenal regression to the real object, they tend to choose shapes, which were more similar to the actual object than…show more content… Gestalt approach emphasizes that we perceive a well-organized, whole structures rather than as separated, isolated parts. He developed number of principles that described how objects were grouped, such as law of good continuation, of proximity, and of similarity (Edward, 2014). Building on from Gestalt theories, Gibsonian approach emphasizes that our perceptions are rich and elaborate because the stimuli in our environment are rich with information, rather than because our thought processes or experiences provide that richness; and he categorized this approach as indirect and direct perception approach (Edward, 2014). There were many drawbacks of these theories, which leads to many researchers interested in coming up with the best explanations and best model to measure how perception process.
Visual processes in four main stages, first stage is the object where the distal stimulus is present, then the object is projected and become a retinal image of the proximal stimulus, the retinal image is then transformed into sensory representation of proximal stimulus, and becomes the perceptual representation of distal (Edward, 2014). Despite the fact that a given object can be viewed from different angles or distances in a variety of different lighting conditions, we are able to correctly identify the physical characteristics of the objects. Similarly, the apparent sizes,