The Top Down Pressurers : External Imperatives

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Cuban et al. (2001), however, found that teachers do not always have enough time to blend technologies into their teaching routine as easily as their pupils expect. In spite of the training, some teachers face certain low response/adaptability to changes. Hence, the top-down pressurers [external imperatives] must provide consistent support and guidance, sufficient time to get familiarized with the tools and positive rewards. These strategies allow finding opportunities into the digital age to make more pedagogical moves in teachers’ labour. Stepp-Greany’s study (2002) appeared to report gains for students related to their use of technology in their study ‘including higher motivation, improvement in self-concept and mastery of basic skills, more student-centred learning and engagement in the learning process’. In short words, the more student-centred learning is promoted, the more teachers and technologies can improve the education and learning. Technology and teachers are adjustable and compatible since they can complement each other and increase their valuable practices mutually. Laurillard (2008) suggested that technology could bring collaborative learning for teachers, and now, we can add to her statement the students, in order to show what both groups [teachers and students] could do best in their academic settings.
One of the goals of using new ways of teaching in different levels of education (i.e. higher education, adult education, secondary school) is to promote

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