Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus ( T1dm )

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INTRODUCTION
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is the most common metabolic disorder in which both genetic and environmental factors are involved [1]. T1DM is considered a chronic immune-mediated disorder. It was hypothesized that whilst children have a genetic predisposition to T1DM, there is likely to be an environmental factor that triggers the development of T1DM. Possible triggers that have been suggested include viral infection, vaccines, low levels of vitamin D and cow’s milk, [2]. Oxidative stress is one of the important pathways that have been involved in the etiopathogenesis of T1D [3]. Complications of T1DM could be due to the cellular metabolism leading to hyperglycemia and excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
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Objectives
This study aimed to evaluate the association of glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GST M1) and glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GST T1) polymorphisms with the development of T1DM and disease- related risk factors.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
The study included 64 diabetic children with T1DM with a mean age of 11.7± 3.6 years; 26 boys and 38 girls. They were enrolled from the attendants of pediatric genetic and endocrinology unit and pediatric outpatient clinic of Menoufia university Hospitals, Egypt. The study was conducted in the period from January 2015 to March 2016. Diagnosis of T1DM patients was based on the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria [9]. Patients were followed up , regularly checked and investigated accordingly for diabetic complications , their current treatment regimens. Cases suffering from 2ry diabetes , or having chronic-related diseases , like hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism or hypoadrenalism were excluded.
Forty-one apparently healthy children of matched age and sex served as a control group. Written informed consent was obtained from each child included in the study or their participant parents. Ethical clearance was obtained for the research project. The study protocol conforms to the ethical guidelines of the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments. Data about the duration of illness and onset of the disease in children with T1DM were taken. Body
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