We Should View Terrorism By Alan Krueger And Jitka Maleckova

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can thus be seen as two sides of the same coin: their organizational structure (or lack thereof), attackers, and victims may differ, but they retain several key similarities. Alan Krueger and Jitka Maleckova argue that we should view terrorism “less like property crime and more like a violent form of political engagement.” Hate crime should also be conceptualized in this manner. Unlike other forms of criminal activity where the offender’s motivation is often material gain, perpetrators of both terrorist attacks and hate crimes’ motivations are more nebulous -- the opportunity to express grievances and have an outlet for their anger, the desire to be part of a larger community, and ultimately to instill fear in the individuals that they are victimizing. Theoretical research on crime argues that crimes can be a form of “self-help,” in that individuals are expressing grievance “by unilateral aggression such as personal violence or property destruction.” In research on conflict more generally, there is evidence that groups who feel aggrieved are more likely to turn to violence. Both terrorism and hate crime may allow their perpetrators to feel like they are a part of something larger than themselves and have an outlet to express their grievances. The desire for group bonding extends beyond the attacks that literally take place within social groups or terrorist networks. For example, the Islamic State openly encourages so-called “lone wolf” attacks, which are carried out in

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