Hyperglycemia is the condition where the blood glucose level is abnormally high and often related to diabetes mellitus. It is also the hallmark of diabetes Type 1 and Type 2. There are several causes of hyperglycemia. Type 1 diabetic patients have hyperglycemia because the patients do not have enough insulin while Type 2 patients usually have enough insulin but is not efficient as it should be. Other than that, lack of exercise and stress may as well cause hyperglycemia. One interesting cause of hyperglycemia is dawn phenomenon where hormones are highly produced around 4.00 a.m. to 5.00 a.m.. Everyone has experiences this condition. However, this is unfortunate for diabetic patient as they do not have normal insulin response to modulate to this condition. Diabetic patients’ specially Type 2 blood glucose level will normally increase significantly on early morning before breakfast (fasting glucose). This is due to more production of glucagon than insulin. Glucagon signals break down glycogen into glucose therefore increasing the blood glucose level. Another cause of hyperglycemia is pancreatitis where inflammation occurs on the pancreas. The inflammation may has caused by gallstone where it has block the pancreatic duct, high consummation of alcohol and trauma. Besides that, Cushing’s Syndrome may also contribute to hyperglycemia. Cushing’s Syndrome is the prolong exposure of cell tissue to hormone cortisol. Symptoms of hyperglycemia that are obviously seen are frequent
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Diabetes is a disease that cases blood glucose levels to rise higher than normal in the body. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes when being compared to type 1diabetes. When blood sugars rises to levels higher than normal it is called hyperglycemia. Diabetes, type 2 can result in many different issues that affect the body. There are many complications that are linked with diabetes for example, higher risk
The blood glucose level has very limited range for humans to survive and stay healthy. Generally, people are able to remove excess glucose rapidly from the body but this is not the case when they are diagnosed with diabetes and insulin resistant situations. The lack of insulin resistance can also lead to a decrease in glycogen synthesis and storage as it usually converts glucose to energy for cell’s use (Jensen & et al. 2011). When insulin is produced under insulin resistance, the cells are incapable of using them effectively which then leads to high blood sugar level as ketones and ketoacids are produced as an alternative energy source for the body. The rise of ketoacid causes the blood pH acidic and the patient may also be diagnosed with ketoacidosis (Newton & Raskin 2004). There would also be less intake of lipid and more of stored triglycerides as the lipids are effected by the insulin. As the glucose levels increase, the muscle glucose uptake will decrease while the liver glucose production and blood fatty acid concentration will also increase within the body (Lichtenstein & Schwab 2000). Excess glucose within the blood are converted to fat which can lead to Diabetic Dyslipidaemia and furthermore to obesity, hypertension and
Diabetes Mellitus is the metabolic disorder characterized by high levels of blood glucose that is caused by deficiency of production of insulin, action of insulin, or may be both of them. The uncontrollable output of hepatic glucose and reduced uptake of glucose by the skeletal muscle with reduced synthesis of glycogen lead to hyperglycaemia. Diabetes is a complicated disease; it can affect mostly every organ of our body and causes devastating consequences.
He said, diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that occurs when the body doesn 't make enough of insulin, or the body doesn 't use insulin properly. Insulin is a key to regulation of blood glucose in our body. In types II diabetes a condition of when insulin insensitivity as a result of insulin resistance that decreases insulin production and eventual pancreatic beta-cell failure enough insulin to meet body needs. Impairment of beta- cell also can lead to problems with insulin production and resistance that can interfere with the process of glucose uptake in by cells and muscle. This condition leads to a decrease in glucose transport into the liver, muscle cells, and fat cells which can lead to a condition called hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia occurs when there is a high level of blood glucose levels in our blood (Concepts Advisory Panel (2015) p.742).
Obesity, lack of exercise, some ethnicity's, and age are just a few of the triggers for Type 2 diabetes. It is also triggered by genetics, high blood pressure and high cholesterol. The greatest cause of Type 2 diabetes is unhealthy eating habits. People who do not eat properly and have daily exercise are highly susceptible to Type 2
To understand the reasoning of this event, this case study will explain the anatomy and physiology of what is happening in this patient’s body. This will include a brief understanding of the endocrine function and how it maintains blood glucose normally versus that in type 1 diabetic patients. It will also explain the pathology of a type 1 diabetic, the acute pathophysiology of the hyperglycaemic event and why it should be presented as an acute
Diabetes is a chronic disease in which a person’s glucose (blood sugar) is higher than normal. After our bodies have digested foods and turned them into sugar, the pancreas produces insulin. Insulin helps the body take sugar (blood sugar) out of the bloodstream and helps to shuttle it into our cells to be used for energy. If a person has diabetes, their bodies either doesn’t make enough insulin (Type II) or the body doesn’t use the insulin as it should (Type I). Either of these conditions can result in high sugar (glucose) levels (CDC, 2013).
According to the CDC, type 2 diabetes is responsible for 95% of all diabetic cases in the US. Although it is the most common, it is also the least understood as far as cause or how it 's inherited. The pathophysiology behind it is, unlike people with type 1 diabetes, the bodies of people with type 2 diabetes are able to make insulin. But either their pancreas does not make enough insulin or the body cannot use the insulin well enough. When there isn 't enough insulin or the insulin is not used properly, glucose can 't get into the body 's cells. When glucose builds up in the blood instead of going into cells, the body 's cells are not able to function as they should. Though signs and symptoms sometimes differ from patient to patient, common problems associated with the buildup of glucose in the blood include hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation, hypercoagulation, and endothelial- cell dysfunction. Some of the life threatening disorders include, but are not limited to the following:
The state of which there is not enough sugar in the blood is called hypoglycemia. The state where there is too much sugar in the blood is called hyperglycemia. Both of these states of low and high sugar in the blood should be monitored in people that have the disease of diabetes. The symptoms of hypoglycemia are; blurred vision, headache, cold clammy skin, sweating and irritability. The symptoms of hyperglycemia are; hot dry skin, kussmaul’s respirations, vomiting, polyuria, polyphagia, and polydipsia. Hypoglycemia in the person with the disease of diabetes is caused by not enough sugar in the blood, or too much insulin in the blood. Hyperglycemia in the person with the disease of diabetes is caused by too much sugar in the blood stream (Stanbridge College, Diabetes Powerpoint pg. 8).
In type 2 diabetes the long term elevated blood sugar can cause the beta cells to burn out trying to keep up with so much demand for insulin which can lead to insulin dependence (Hawthorn University, 2009). Type 2 diabetes is generally caused by poor lifestyle choices such as eating refined, processed foods, high sugars, bad fats and a sedentary lifestyle. Obesity can be another cause and can also be a sign of diabetes especially if it is upper body obesity or the apple shape. These choices cause blood glucose levels to swing out of control and over time can cause diabetes.
This occurs when an excess volume of glucose is secreted from the blood by excessive levels of insulin. Symptoms of a patient experience hyper episode include passing more urine than usual, being thirsty, headaches, tiredness and lethargy. (Nhs.uk, 2015) When an individual blood sugar becomes to low the patient is said to have a hypoglycemic attack. Symptoms of a patient experiencing a hypo episode include tachycardia, increased blood pressure, increased pulse rate, sweating and anxiety. (Nhs.uk, 2015) Relating to Mrs M’s presenting feature was her shown symptoms from her hyperglycemic attack. This included the occurrence of polyuria, the excretion of large amounts of urine due to blood glucose levels exceeding the renal limit from osmotic diuresis. A second presenting feature that occurred from patients hyperglycemic attack was Polydipsia. This is excessive thirst due to electrolytes in cells and loss of fluid. Excessive thirst is one of the earliest symptoms of diabetes to develop/ and it is associated with excessive dryness in the mouth. Dehydration occurs when the level of glucose in the bloodstream becomes hyper-concentrated. Your kidneys then lose the extract glucose from water, this can be shown with a urine sample in that on a normal basis there would be no glucose present in the urine as it is all put back into the body however the osmotic pressure begins to build up
A condition such as type 1 diabetes comes with many complications if it’s not treated right. The reason the glucose is maintained at a healthy level is because there are some serious symptoms if the glucose levels are too high or too low. When a glucose level is too high, which is called hyperglycemia; a type 1 diabetic would experience symptoms such as high level of sugar in the
There many factors that can cause a person to have type two diabetes. Some of the reasons include but do not limit: Obesity, the consumption of artificial sweeteners, lack of physical activity, stress, depression, and genetics.
The most common is Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed when your body doesn’t use the insulin right. This happens when the pancreas can’t keep up with producing insulin. Whenever the process slows down it causes high blood sugar (Symptoms & Causes of Diabetes, niddk). The cause of it is most likely lifestyle factors, but can be genes.
People with diabetes have high blood sugar. This is because their pancreas does not make enough insulin or their muscle, fat, and liver cells do not respond to insulin normally, or both.