Question

This problem is (6.20) from a book "Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics An Integrated Approach by M. Scott Shell"

Step 1

Note: Since we only answer up to 3 sub-parts, we’ll answer the first 3. Please resubmit the question and specify the other subparts (up to 3) you’d like answered.

Part (a)

For an isolated system, *dH = TdS*. Thus,

Step 2

Freezing of supercooled water implies that, *T* ≤ 273.15 K.

Step 3

As *T* < 273.15 K, Δ*S*total > 0, thus the process becomes irreversible. This happens when heat flows out of the system and freezing occurs, increasing the entropy of the system.

In an isolated system, ice is not formed at 0°C (273.15 ) but the liquid is supercooled liquid. For the formation of ice at this ...

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