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BladderStateSmokingLungKidneyLeukemiaAL18.22.917.051.596.15AZ25.823.5219.82.756.61ARCA18.242.9915.982.026.947.0628.64.4622.072.66CT31.15.1122.833.357.2DE33.64.7824.553.366.45DC40.465.627.273.137.08FL28.274.4623.572.416.07ID20.13.0813.582.466.6227.91IL4.7522.82.957.27IN26.184.0920.32.8171O22.124.2316.592.97.69KS21.842.9116.842.887.42KY23.442.8617.712.136.41LA21.584.6525.452.36.71ME28.924.7920.943.226.24MD25.915.2126.482.856.81MA26.924.6922.043.036.89MI24.965.2722.722.976.91MN22.063.7214.23.548.28MS16.083.0615.61.776.08MO27.564.0420.982.556.82MT23.753.9519.53.436.9NB23.323.7216.72.927.8NE42.46.5423.032.856.67NJ28.645.9825.953.127.1221.16NM2.914.592.525.9529.14NY5.325.023.17.23ND19.962.8912.123.626.99OH26.384.4721.892.957.38OK23.442.9319.452.457.4612.11PE23.784.892.756.83RI29.184.9923.682.846.35SC18.063.2517.4514.112.055.82SD20.943.643.118.15TE20.082.9417.62.186.59TX22.573.2120.742.697.02UT143.3112.012.26.7125.894.63VT21.223.176.56WA21.174.0420.342.787.48WI21.255.1420.552.346.737.3822.864.7815.533.283.2WY28.0415.922.665.78AK30.343.4625.884.324.9

Question

Could you help me with these questions in regaurds to the table provided?

(2) Calculate covariance between smoking and the death rates from each of the 4 types of
cancer.
(3) Calculate correlation between smoking and the death rates from each of the 4 types of
cancer.
(4) Based on the results from steps (1) to (3), discuss the relationships between smoking and
the death rates from the four types of cancer.
Bladder
State
Smoking
Lung
Kidney
Leukemia
AL
18.2
2.9
17.05
1.59
6.15
AZ
25.82
3.52
19.8
2.75
6.61
AR
CA
18.24
2.99
15.98
2.02
6.94
7.06
28.6
4.46
22.07
2.66
CT
31.1
5.11
22.83
3.35
7.2
DE
33.6
4.78
24.55
3.36
6.45
DC
40.46
5.6
27.27
3.13
7.08
FL
28.27
4.46
23.57
2.41
6.07
ID
20.1
3.08
13.58
2.46
6.62
27.91
IL
4.75
22.8
2.95
7.27
IN
26.18
4.09
20.3
2.81
7
1O
22.12
4.23
16.59
2.9
7.69
KS
21.84
2.91
16.84
2.88
7.42
KY
23.44
2.86
17.71
2.13
6.41
LA
21.58
4.65
25.45
2.3
6.71
ME
28.92
4.79
20.94
3.22
6.24
MD
25.91
5.21
26.48
2.85
6.81
MA
26.92
4.69
22.04
3.03
6.89
MI
24.96
5.27
22.72
2.97
6.91
MN
22.06
3.72
14.2
3.54
8.28
MS
16.08
3.06
15.6
1.77
6.08
MO
27.56
4.04
20.98
2.55
6.82
MT
23.75
3.95
19.5
3.43
6.9
NB
23.32
3.72
16.7
2.92
7.8
NE
42.4
6.54
23.03
2.85
6.67
NJ
28.64
5.98
25.95
3.12
7.12
21.16
NM
2.9
14.59
2.52
5.95
29.14
NY
5.3
25.02
3.1
7.23
ND
19.96
2.89
12.12
3.62
6.99
OH
26.38
4.47
21.89
2.95
7.38
OK
23.44
2.93
19.45
2.45
7.46
12.11
PE
23.78
4.89
2.75
6.83
RI
29.18
4.99
23.68
2.84
6.35
SC
18.06
3.25
17.45
14.11
2.05
5.82
SD
20.94
3.64
3.11
8.15
TE
20.08
2.94
17.6
2.18
6.59
TX
22.57
3.21
20.74
2.69
7.02
UT
14
3.31
12.01
2.2
6.71
25.89
4.63
VT
21.22
3.17
6.56
WA
21.17
4.04
20.34
2.78
7.48
WI
21.25
5.14
20.55
2.34
6.73
7.38
22.86
4.78
15.53
3.28
3.2
WY
28.04
15.92
2.66
5.78
AK
30.34
3.46
25.88
4.32
4.9
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Image Transcriptionclose

Bladder State Smoking Lung Kidney Leukemia AL 18.2 2.9 17.05 1.59 6.15 AZ 25.82 3.52 19.8 2.75 6.61 AR CA 18.24 2.99 15.98 2.02 6.94 7.06 28.6 4.46 22.07 2.66 CT 31.1 5.11 22.83 3.35 7.2 DE 33.6 4.78 24.55 3.36 6.45 DC 40.46 5.6 27.27 3.13 7.08 FL 28.27 4.46 23.57 2.41 6.07 ID 20.1 3.08 13.58 2.46 6.62 27.91 IL 4.75 22.8 2.95 7.27 IN 26.18 4.09 20.3 2.81 7 1O 22.12 4.23 16.59 2.9 7.69 KS 21.84 2.91 16.84 2.88 7.42 KY 23.44 2.86 17.71 2.13 6.41 LA 21.58 4.65 25.45 2.3 6.71 ME 28.92 4.79 20.94 3.22 6.24 MD 25.91 5.21 26.48 2.85 6.81 MA 26.92 4.69 22.04 3.03 6.89 MI 24.96 5.27 22.72 2.97 6.91 MN 22.06 3.72 14.2 3.54 8.28 MS 16.08 3.06 15.6 1.77 6.08 MO 27.56 4.04 20.98 2.55 6.82 MT 23.75 3.95 19.5 3.43 6.9 NB 23.32 3.72 16.7 2.92 7.8 NE 42.4 6.54 23.03 2.85 6.67 NJ 28.64 5.98 25.95 3.12 7.12 21.16 NM 2.9 14.59 2.52 5.95 29.14 NY 5.3 25.02 3.1 7.23 ND 19.96 2.89 12.12 3.62 6.99 OH 26.38 4.47 21.89 2.95 7.38 OK 23.44 2.93 19.45 2.45 7.46 12.11 PE 23.78 4.89 2.75 6.83 RI 29.18 4.99 23.68 2.84 6.35 SC 18.06 3.25 17.45 14.11 2.05 5.82 SD 20.94 3.64 3.11 8.15 TE 20.08 2.94 17.6 2.18 6.59 TX 22.57 3.21 20.74 2.69 7.02 UT 14 3.31 12.01 2.2 6.71 25.89 4.63 VT 21.22 3.17 6.56 WA 21.17 4.04 20.34 2.78 7.48 WI 21.25 5.14 20.55 2.34 6.73 7.38 22.86 4.78 15.53 3.28 3.2 WY 28.04 15.92 2.66 5.78 AK 30.34 3.46 25.88 4.32 4.9

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check_circleAnswer
Step 1
Step 2

In this part we have calculated the sample Mean, standard deviation for each of smoking, Bladder, lung, Kidney and Leukemia.

Note: 

Xi denotes Smoking

Pi denotes Bladder

Qi denotes Lungs

Ri denotes Kidney

Si denotes Leukemia.

Results of the calculations have shown below through table. 

Covariance and correlation calculations is in next part.

(Xi-Xbar)(Qi-Qbar)Xi-Xbar)(Ri-Rbar)Xi-Xbar(Si-Sbar)
State
AL
Smoking(XiBladder(Pi) |Lung(Qi) Kidney(Ri) |Leukemia(Si) |Xi-Xbar)(Pi-Pbar)
18.20
2.90
17.05
1.59
6.15
8.20
17.48
8.09
4.56
-0.04
25.82
3.52
19.80
2.75
6.61
-0.54
0.13
-0.20
2.99
4.46
24.52
AR
18.24
28.60
15.98
6.94
7.55
5.17
-0.74
2.02
2.66
-0.50
CA
22.07
7.06
125
8.91
0.85
CT
31.10
5.11
22.83
3.35
7.20
6.12
19.65
3.44
2.29
33.60
6.45
5.72
4 78
24.55
3.36
42.53
4.91
-3.30
5.60
DC
40.46
27.27
3.13
7.08
22.99
118.41
521
3.89
28.27
20.10
-1.29
4.46
23.57
2.41
60
1.14
13.14
-2.55
2.46
5.01
3.08
6.62
1.61
1.01
ID
13.58
29.24
9.43
IL
27.91
4.75
22.80
2.95
7.27
1.S8
0.47
1.32
IN
26.18
4.09
20.30
2.81
-0.04
0.02
0.22
0.82
7.00
7.69
22.12
21.84
8 56
IO
4 23
16.59
290
-0.30
-0.29
2.40
16.84
7.42
3.72
0.26
-1.81
KS
2.91
2.88
8.65
2.86
-19.33
KY
LA
1.86
-1.76
23.44
2.86
17.71
2.13
6.41
0.98
0.62
21.58
25.45
6.7
1.65
0.40
4.65
2.30
28.92
4.79
20.94
3,22
6.2
2.68
5.15
170
-2.36
25.91
6.8
1.08
0.06
5.21
26.48
2.85
6.80
0.02
22.04
4.79
0.14
0.47
26.92
4,69
3.03
6.89
1.14
0.12
0.05
24.96
22.72
6.91
0.01
5.27
2.97
0.00
22.06
3 72
14.20
3.54
8.2
1.14
15.56
-2.13
4.14
6.08
9.3
16.08
3.06
15.60
1.77
35.81
9.05
6.62
27.56
4.04
20.98
6.82
2,55
-0.21
3.51
-0.65
-0.03
0.20
23.75
6.90
-0.74
-0.08
-1.55
3.95
19.50
3.43
0.18
23.32
3.72
16.70
2.92
7.80
0.64
-0.20
42.40
28.64
23.03
-2.80
42.30
6.54
2.85
6.6
59.05
0.97
5.98
23.46
NJ
25.95
3.12
7.12
6.93
121
1.08
21.16
14.59
1.03
2.90
2.52
5.95
4.58
19.01
3.30
NY
ND
5.30
7 2
25.02
22.68
1.29
29.14
.10
4.98
1.69
19.96
2.89
12.12
62
6.99
6.10
37.32
4.09
-0.80
2.95
2.,45
2.75
2.84
2.05
OH
26.38
4.47
21.89
7.38
0.51
3.28
0.23
0.81
23 44
093
OK
2.93
489
4.99
19.45
7.46
1.76
0.30
0.51
6.83
0.00
23.78
12.11
-0.87
8.55
0.05
0.19
RI
6.35
-2.05
29.18
23.68
3.71
17.18
18.06
5.82
5.10
6.92
-5.25
SC
6.25
17.45
5.97
15.10
8.15
22.03
1.25
ST
20.94
,64
14.11
,11
1.91
20.08
29
2.18
6.59
5.71
1.16
,94
17.60
9.93
22.57
20.74
2.69
7.02
2.14
0.25
-0.45
TY
21
-2.55
14.00
12.01
2.20
6.7
8 85
83.42
6.49
1.31
UT
3.31
VT
25.89
4.63
21.22
3.17
6.56
0.50
15
03
-0.26
2.44
0.37
2.78
WA
WI
wV
WY
AK
Total
Mean
Standard deviation
7 4
00
21.17
4.04
20.34
0.30
-2.5
3 2
21.25
20 5
-3,73
5.14
2 34
6.7
1.61
7 3
22.86
4.78
15.53
3 28
-1.35
8.47
11.67
-100
-1.13
3.20
2.66
28.04
15.92
-2.88
1.6
-0.42
-3.29
2./8
4.90
30.34
3,46
25.88
4.32
-3.59
33.79
S.28
-10.47
706.66
181.33
4,12
0.96
60.63
-10.48
1096.22
864.74
122.96
300.51
162.71
19.65
2,79
24.91
6.83
0.64
5.57
4.23
0.52
-8***074Z --5-B66FE852FEM899943P
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(Xi-Xbar)(Qi-Qbar)Xi-Xbar)(Ri-Rbar)Xi-Xbar(Si-Sbar) State AL Smoking(XiBladder(Pi) |Lung(Qi) Kidney(Ri) |Leukemia(Si) |Xi-Xbar)(Pi-Pbar) 18.20 2.90 17.05 1.59 6.15 8.20 17.48 8.09 4.56 -0.04 25.82 3.52 19.80 2.75 6.61 -0.54 0.13 -0.20 2.99 4.46 24.52 AR 18.24 28.60 15.98 6.94 7.55 5.17 -0.74 2.02 2.66 -0.50 CA 22.07 7.06 125 8.91 0.85 CT 31.10 5.11 22.83 3.35 7.20 6.12 19.65 3.44 2.29 33.60 6.45 5.72 4 78 24.55 3.36 42.53 4.91 -3.30 5.60 DC 40.46 27.27 3.13 7.08 22.99 118.41 521 3.89 28.27 20.10 -1.29 4.46 23.57 2.41 60 1.14 13.14 -2.55 2.46 5.01 3.08 6.62 1.61 1.01 ID 13.58 29.24 9.43 IL 27.91 4.75 22.80 2.95 7.27 1.S8 0.47 1.32 IN 26.18 4.09 20.30 2.81 -0.04 0.02 0.22 0.82 7.00 7.69 22.12 21.84 8 56 IO 4 23 16.59 290 -0.30 -0.29 2.40 16.84 7.42 3.72 0.26 -1.81 KS 2.91 2.88 8.65 2.86 -19.33 KY LA 1.86 -1.76 23.44 2.86 17.71 2.13 6.41 0.98 0.62 21.58 25.45 6.7 1.65 0.40 4.65 2.30 28.92 4.79 20.94 3,22 6.2 2.68 5.15 170 -2.36 25.91 6.8 1.08 0.06 5.21 26.48 2.85 6.80 0.02 22.04 4.79 0.14 0.47 26.92 4,69 3.03 6.89 1.14 0.12 0.05 24.96 22.72 6.91 0.01 5.27 2.97 0.00 22.06 3 72 14.20 3.54 8.2 1.14 15.56 -2.13 4.14 6.08 9.3 16.08 3.06 15.60 1.77 35.81 9.05 6.62 27.56 4.04 20.98 6.82 2,55 -0.21 3.51 -0.65 -0.03 0.20 23.75 6.90 -0.74 -0.08 -1.55 3.95 19.50 3.43 0.18 23.32 3.72 16.70 2.92 7.80 0.64 -0.20 42.40 28.64 23.03 -2.80 42.30 6.54 2.85 6.6 59.05 0.97 5.98 23.46 NJ 25.95 3.12 7.12 6.93 121 1.08 21.16 14.59 1.03 2.90 2.52 5.95 4.58 19.01 3.30 NY ND 5.30 7 2 25.02 22.68 1.29 29.14 .10 4.98 1.69 19.96 2.89 12.12 62 6.99 6.10 37.32 4.09 -0.80 2.95 2.,45 2.75 2.84 2.05 OH 26.38 4.47 21.89 7.38 0.51 3.28 0.23 0.81 23 44 093 OK 2.93 489 4.99 19.45 7.46 1.76 0.30 0.51 6.83 0.00 23.78 12.11 -0.87 8.55 0.05 0.19 RI 6.35 -2.05 29.18 23.68 3.71 17.18 18.06 5.82 5.10 6.92 -5.25 SC 6.25 17.45 5.97 15.10 8.15 22.03 1.25 ST 20.94 ,64 14.11 ,11 1.91 20.08 29 2.18 6.59 5.71 1.16 ,94 17.60 9.93 22.57 20.74 2.69 7.02 2.14 0.25 -0.45 TY 21 -2.55 14.00 12.01 2.20 6.7 8 85 83.42 6.49 1.31 UT 3.31 VT 25.89 4.63 21.22 3.17 6.56 0.50 15 03 -0.26 2.44 0.37 2.78 WA WI wV WY AK Total Mean Standard deviation 7 4 00 21.17 4.04 20.34 0.30 -2.5 3 2 21.25 20 5 -3,73 5.14 2 34 6.7 1.61 7 3 22.86 4.78 15.53 3 28 -1.35 8.47 11.67 -100 -1.13 3.20 2.66 28.04 15.92 -2.88 1.6 -0.42 -3.29 2./8 4.90 30.34 3,46 25.88 4.32 -3.59 33.79 S.28 -10.47 706.66 181.33 4,12 0.96 60.63 -10.48 1096.22 864.74 122.96 300.51 162.71 19.65 2,79 24.91 6.83 0.64 5.57 4.23 0.52 -8***074Z --5-B66FE852FEM899943P

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Step 3

Part a) 

Calculations for cov...

2(x,-(-)
'(xi yi)
Covariance
n-1
2(x, -x) (P-P)162.71 3.784
(X.Pi)
Covariance
43
n-1
2(x, x) (Q-) 706.66 -16.434
CovariancexQ)
43
n-1
2(x,-x(R-R)60.63
=1.41
43
Covariance xRi)
n-1
(x, -F)(S,-5)
(Xi
-10.48
=-0.244
Covariance Si)
43
n-1
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2(x,-(-) '(xi yi) Covariance n-1 2(x, -x) (P-P)162.71 3.784 (X.Pi) Covariance 43 n-1 2(x, x) (Q-) 706.66 -16.434 CovariancexQ) 43 n-1 2(x,-x(R-R)60.63 =1.41 43 Covariance xRi) n-1 (x, -F)(S,-5) (Xi -10.48 =-0.244 Covariance Si) 43 n-1

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