Question
Asked Apr 8, 2019
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How might a single base pair difference about 100 bases before the start codon of a gene cause a mutation in that gene?

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Expert Answer

Step 1

The first codon of the mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid) translated by the ribosome is called the “start codon”. It is mostly AUG (adenine uracil guanine) in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes which codes for methionine (Met). The region preceding the start codon is called the ‘untranslated region’ (5’ UTR), which begins from the ‘start site (+1)’ of transcription and ends one nucleotide before the start codon of mRNA. Its length varies from 3-5 nucleotides in prokaryotes and between 100 to several thousands in eukaryotes.

Step 2

The 5’ UTR of eukaryotes is called Kozak consensus sequence. It contains the initiation codon, upstream open reading frames (uORFs) or cis-acting regulatory elements, and terminal codons. All thes...

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