Asked Apr 21, 2019

What are examples for natural resistance, chromosomal resistance, and extrachromosomal resistance? 


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Step 1

To resist the drug, bacteria do not specifically change itself to survive. Mostly random mutations occur for drug resistance in bacteria. These mutations result in the change of the cell’s structure and metabolism that help it survive in the presence of drugs. When a drug is applied to infection, then the bacteria responsible for it will survive if it had undergone the mutations. After surviving, the bacteria keep on dividing and pass on the genetic mutations. There are three types of antibiotic resistance, natural resistance, chromosomal resistance, and extrachromosomal resistance.

Step 2

Natural resistance -   Sometimes the bacterial cell wall does not contain proper transporters that may carry drug inside the cell. Many bacterial cells have a natural efflux system. This pump removes the harmful and foreign particles out of the cell. when the drug enters such cells, then the efflux pump recognizes it and throw it out of the cell. Bacterial cells also contain natural enzymes that break down the drug and make it inactive. Its example is enteric gram-negative bacteria, E.coli. Any type of antibiotic cannot cross its lipopolysaccharide membrane.

Chromosomal resistance – During the spontaneous mutation, the target protein of the drugs gets altered. Due to this, the drug cannot identify it, and the protein becomes resistant to the drug. Moreover, the structure of the cell wall gets altered due to the mutation. This causes the cell wall to become less permeable for the drug. Its example is bacterial protein GyrA. ...

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