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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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Does the entropy of the system increase or decrease for each of the following? Explain.

ol type='a'>

  • the evaporation of alcohol
  • the freezing of water
  • dissolving NaCl in water
  • Interpretation Introduction

    (a)

    Interpretation:

    To determine the change in entropy of system occurring after evaporation of alcohol.

    Concept Introduction:

    Entropy is defined as the measurement of thermal energy of the system as per unit of temperature which is unavailable for performing any work. It is also known as molecular disease for the system as work is obtained from ordered molecular motion. It is represented as ΔS and can be calculated as below:

    ΔS= SfinalSinitial

    The second law of thermodynamics state that there is always increased amount of entropy is seen in isolated systems.

    The entropy of any system increases during following processes:

    1. Melting of any solid to liquid.
    2. The vaporization action of liquid (or solid) results into gaseous form of it.
    3. Chemical reaction which contains phase changes form Solidliquid/gas or liquidgas.
    4. A reaction that results into increased numbers of gas form molecules.
    5. The temperature of substance is increased during the process or any time.

    The entropy of any system decreases during following processes:

    1. The states of matter like liquid or gas is converted to solid or liquid respectively.
    2. The processes like freezing, condensation, deposition results into decresed entropy of system.
    Explanation

    The evaporation of alcohol is the process where the phase change occurs from liquid to gaseous form.

    During evaporation of alcohol, the randomness of the system increases as the molecules are conv...

    Interpretation Introduction

    (b)

    Interpretation:

    To determine the change in entropy of system occurring after freezing of water.

    Concept Introduction:

    Entropy is defined as the measurement of thermal energy of the system as per unit of temperature which is unavailable for performing any work. It is also known as molecular disease for the system as work is obtained from ordered molecular motion. It is represented as ΔS and can be calculated as below:

    ΔS= SfinalSinitial

    The second law of thermodynamics state that there is always increased amount of entropy is seen in isolated systems.

    The entropy of any system increases during following processes:

    1. Melting of any solid to liquid.
    2. The vaporization action of liquid (or solid) results into gaseous form of it.
    3. Chemical reaction which contains phase changes form Solidliquid/gas or liquidgas.
    4. A reaction that results into increased numbers of gas form molecules.
    5. The temperature of substance is increased during the process or any time.

    The entropy of any system decreases during following processes:

    1. The states of matter like liquid or gas is converted to solid or liquid respectively.
    2. The processes like freezing, condensation, deposition results into decreased entropy of system.
    Interpretation Introduction

    (c)

    Interpretation:

    To determine the change in entropy of system occurring after dissolving NaCl in water.

    Concept Introduction:

    Entropy is defined as the measurement of thermal energy of the system as per unit of temperature which is unavailable for performing any work. It is also known as molecular disease for the system as work is obtained from ordered molecular motion. It is represented as ΔS and can be calculated as below:

    ΔS= SfinalSinitial

    The second law of thermodynamics state that there is always increased amount of entropy is seen in isolated systems.

    The entropy of any system increases during following processes:

    1. Melting of any solid to liquid.
    2. The vaporization action of liquid (or solid) results into gaseous form of it.
    3. Chemical reaction which contains phase changes form Solidliquid/gas or liquidgas.
    4. A reaction that results into increased numbers of gas form molecules.
    5. The temperature of substance is increased during the process or any time.

    The entropy of any system decreases during following processes:

    1. The states of matter like liquid or gas is converted to solid or liquid respectively.
    2. The processes like freezing, condensation, deposition results into decreased entropy of system.

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