   Chapter 14, Problem 101E

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

# What is the percent ionization in each of the following solutions?a. 0.10 M NH3b. 0.010 M NH3c. 0.10 M CH3NH2

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The percent ionization in each of the given solutions is to be calculated.

Concept introduction: The pH of a solution is defined as a figure that expresses the acidity of the alkalinity of a given solution.

The pH of a solution is calculated by the formula, pH=log[H+]

At equilibrium, the equilibrium constant expression is expressed by the formula,

Kb=ConcentrationofproductsConcentrationofreactants

The percent ionization of an acid is calculated by the formula,

Percentionization=Equilibriumconcentrationof[OH]Initialconcentrationofthebase×100

Explanation

Explanation

The equilibrium constant expression for the stated ionization reaction is,

Kb=[NH4+][OH][NH3]

NH3 is a weaker base.

The dominant equilibrium reaction for the given case is,

NH3(aq)+H2O(l)NH4+(aq)+OH(aq)

At equilibrium, the equilibrium constant expression is expressed by the formula,

Kb=ConcentrationofproductsConcentrationofreactants

Where,

• Kb is the base ionization constant.

The equilibrium constant expression for the given reaction is,

Kb=[NH4+][OH][NH3] (1)

The [OH] is 1.34×10-3M_ .

The change in concentration of NH3 is assumed to be x .

The liquid components do not affect the value of the rate constant.

The ICE table for the stated reaction is,

NH3(aq)NH4+(aq)+OH(aq)Inititialconcentration0.1000Changex+x+xEquilibriumconcentration0.10xxx

The equilibrium concentration of [NH3] is (0.10x)M .

The equilibrium concentration of [NH4+] is xM .

The equilibrium concentration of [OH] is xM .

The Kb value is 1.8×105

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The percent ionization in each of the given solutions is to be calculated.

Concept introduction: The pH of a solution is defined as a figure that expresses the acidity of the alkalinity of a given solution.

The pH of a solution is calculated by the formula, pH=log[H+]

At equilibrium, the equilibrium constant expression is expressed by the formula,

Kb=ConcentrationofproductsConcentrationofreactants

The percent ionization of an acid is calculated by the formula,

Percentionization=Equilibriumconcentrationof[OH]Initialconcentrationofthebase×100

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The percent ionization in each of the given solutions is to be calculated.

Concept introduction: The pH of a solution is defined as a figure that expresses the acidity of the alkalinity of a given solution.

The pH of a solution is calculated by the formula, pH=log[H+]

At equilibrium, the equilibrium constant expression is expressed by the formula,

Kb=ConcentrationofproductsConcentrationofreactants

The percent ionization of an acid is calculated by the formula,

Percentionization=Equilibriumconcentrationof[OH]Initialconcentrationofthebase×100

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