Cardiopulmonary Anatomy & Physiolo...

7th Edition
Des Jardins + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337794909



Cardiopulmonary Anatomy & Physiolo...

7th Edition
Des Jardins + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337794909
Textbook Problem

An individual's systemic vascular resistance increases in response to

1. Morphine

2. Hypovolemia

3. Increased P CO2

4. Epinephrine

A. 1 only

B. 2 only

C. 3 only

D. 2 and 4 only

Summary Introduction


The resistance that is observed in the blood flowing through the systemic and the pulmonary vascular system is known as vascular resistance. The resistance to the systemic vascular system is higher as compared to the pulmonary vascular system. The systemic vascular resistance reflects the pressure on the left ventricle against which, the heart must work to remove blood (afterload) during systole. It is altered by many factors such as vasoconstricting agents, vasodilating agents, and several abnormal conditions.


Justification/ Explanation for the correct answers:

Option (d) is given as 2 and 4 only. An individual’s systemic vascular resistance increases in response to hypovolemia and epinephrine. Hypovolemia refers to an abnormal condition of the body which leads to a decrease in the volume of bodily fluids such as blood and water. The blood supply to the systemic vascular system also decreases when the volume of the fluids is reduced. This leads to an increase in the pressure requirements for the afterload. This results in increased systemic vascular resistance.

The vasoconstricting agents such as epinephrine induce constriction of the heart muscles. This leads to a reduced cardiac output and an increased pressure in both the arterial and venous system. Thus, this leads to restricted blood flow and results in an increased systemic vascular resistance.

Hence, option (d) is correct.

Explanation for the incorrect answers:

Option (a) is given as 1 only. Morphine is an opioid drug that can stimulate the nervous system. It is usually used as a pain medication and acts as a depressant of the central nervous system...

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