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Hydrogen is produced commercially by the reaction of methane with steam: CH 4 ( g ) + H 2 O ( g ) ⇌ CO ( g ) + 3H 2 ( g ) a. Calculate ∆ H° and ∆ S° for this reaction (use the data in Appendix 4). b. What temperatures will favor product formation at standard conditions? Assume ∆ H° and ∆ S° do not depend on temperature.

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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 19, Problem 11E
Textbook Problem
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Hydrogen is produced commercially by the reaction of methane with steam:

CH 4 ( g ) + H 2 O ( g ) CO ( g ) + 3H 2 ( g )

a. Calculate ∆ and ∆ for this reaction (use the data in Appendix 4).

b. What temperatures will favor product formation at standard conditions? Assume ∆ and ∆ do not depend on temperature.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: Reaction of commercial production of hydrogen is given. The value of ΔH° and ΔS° is to be calculated for the given reaction. The temperature at which this reaction is favored is to be calculated.

Concept introduction: The expression to calculate ΔH° is,

ΔH°=npΔH°(product)nfΔH°(reactant)

The expression to calculate ΔS° is,

ΔS°=npΔS°(product)nfΔS°(reactant)

A reaction is said to be favored if the value of ΔG° is negative.

To determine: The value of ΔH° and ΔS° for the given reaction.

Explanation of Solution

Explanation

The stated reaction is,

CH4(g)+H2O(g)CO(g)+3H2(g)

Refer to Appendix 4

The value of ΔH°(kJ/mol) for the given reactant and product is,

Molecules ΔH°(kJ/mol)
CH4(g) 75
H2O(g) 242
CO(g) 110.5
H2(g) 0

The formula of ΔH° is,

ΔH°=npΔH°(product)nfΔH°(reactant)

Where,

  • ΔH° the standard enthalpy of reaction.
  • np is the number of moles of each product.
  • nr is the number of moles each reactant.
  • ΔH°(product) is the standard enthalpy of product at a pressure of 1atm .
  • ΔH°(reactant) is the standard enthalpy of reactant at a pressure of 1atm .

Substitute all the values from the table in the above equation.

ΔH°=npΔH°(product)nfΔH°(reactant)=[3(0)+(110.5){(75)+(242)}]kJ=206

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: Reaction of commercial production of hydrogen is given. The value of ΔH° and ΔS° is to be calculated for the given reaction. The temperature at which this reaction is favored is to be calculated.

Concept introduction: The expression to calculate ΔH° is,

ΔH°=npΔH°(product)nfΔH°(reactant)

The expression to calculate ΔS° is,

ΔS°=npΔS°(product)nfΔS°(reactant)

A reaction is said to be favored if the value of ΔG° is negative.

To determine: The temperature at which this reaction is favored.

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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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