9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133611097


9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133611097


Chapter 19, Problem 58E
Textbook Problem

Consider the following information:

i. The layer of dead skin on our bodies is sufficient to protect us from most α-particle radiation.

ii. Plutonium is an α-particle producer.

iii. The chemistry of Pu4+ is similar to that of Fe3+.

iv. Pu oxidizes readily to Pu4+.

Why is plutonium one of the most toxic substances known?

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Chapter 19 Solutions

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Ch. 19 - When nuclei undergo nuclear transformations, rays...Ch. 19 - There is a trend in the United States toward using...Ch. 19 - Which type of radioactive decay has the net effect...Ch. 19 - Consider the following graph of binding energy per...Ch. 19 - What are transuranium elements and how are they...Ch. 19 - Scientists have estimated that the earths crust...Ch. 19 - Why are the observed energy changes for nuclear...Ch. 19 - Natural uranium is mostly nonfissionable 238U; it...Ch. 19 - Much of the research on controlled fusion focuses...Ch. 19 - A recent study concluded that any amount of...Ch. 19 - Write an equation describing the radioactive decay...Ch. 19 - In each of the following radioactive decay...Ch. 19 - Supply the missing particle, and state the type of...Ch. 19 - Write balanced equations for each of the processes...Ch. 19 - Write an equation describing Ute radioactive decay...Ch. 19 - In each of the following radioactive decay...Ch. 19 - Uranium-235 undergoes a series of -particle and,...Ch. 19 - The radioactive isotope 247Bk decays by a series...Ch. 19 - One type of commercial smoke detector contains a...Ch. 19 - Thorium-232 is known to undergo a progressive...Ch. 19 - There are four stable isotopes of iron with mass...Ch. 19 - In 1994 it was proposed (and eventually accepted)...Ch. 19 - Many elements have been synthesized by bombarding...Ch. 19 - Americium-241 is widely used in smoke detectors....Ch. 19 - Krypton consists of several radioactive isotopes,...Ch. 19 - Radioactive copper-64 decays with a half-life of...Ch. 19 - A chemist wishing to do an experiment requiring...Ch. 19 - The curie (Ci) is a commonly used unit for...Ch. 19 - The first atomic explosion was detonated in the...Ch. 19 - Iodine-131 is used in the diagnosis and treatment...Ch. 19 - Technetium-99 has been used as a radiographic...Ch. 19 - Phosphorus-32 is a commonly used radioactive...Ch. 19 - The bromine-82 nucleus has a half-life of 1.0 103...Ch. 19 - Fresh rainwater or surface water contains enough...Ch. 19 - A living plant contains approximately the same...Ch. 19 - Assume a constant 14C/12C ratio of 13.6 counts per...Ch. 19 - A rock contains 0.688 mg 206Pb for every 1.000 mg...Ch. 19 - The mass ratios of 40Ar to 40K also can be used to...Ch. 19 - The sun radiates 3.9 1023 J of energy into space...Ch. 19 - The earth receives 1.8 1014 kJ/s of solar energy....Ch. 19 - Many transuranium elements, such as plutonium-232,...Ch. 19 - The most stable nucleus in terms of binding energy...Ch. 19 - Calculate the binding energy per nucleon for H12...Ch. 19 - The mass defect for lithium-6 nucleus is 0.03434...Ch. 19 - The binding energy per nucleon for magnesium-27 is...Ch. 19 - Calculate the amount of energy released per gram...Ch. 19 - The easiest fusion reaction to initiate is...Ch. 19 - The typical response of a Geiger-Mller tube is...Ch. 19 - When using a Geiger-Mller counter to measure...Ch. 19 - Consider the following reaction to produce methyl...Ch. 19 - A chemist studied the reaction mechanism for the...Ch. 19 - Uranium-235 undergoes many different fission...Ch. 19 - Breeder reactors are used to convert the...Ch. 19 - Which do you think would be the greater health...Ch. 19 - Consider the following information: i. The layer...Ch. 19 - Predict whether each of the following nuclides is...Ch. 19 - Each of the following isotopes has been used...Ch. 19 - The mass percent of carbon in a typical human is...Ch. 19 - At a flea market, youve found a very interesting...Ch. 19 - Define third-life in a similar way to half-life,...Ch. 19 - A proposed system for storing nuclear wastes...Ch. 19 - During World War II, tritium (3H) was a component...Ch. 19 - A positron and an electron can annihilate each...Ch. 19 - A small atomic bomb releases energy equivalent to...Ch. 19 - During the research that led to production of the...Ch. 19 - Using the kinetic molecular theory (see Section...Ch. 19 - Consider the following reaction, which can take...Ch. 19 - Photosynthesis in plants can be represented by the...Ch. 19 - Strontium-90 and radon-222 both pose serious...Ch. 19 - Complete the following table with the nuclear...Ch. 19 - A certain radioactive nuclide has a half-life of...Ch. 19 - Iodine-131 has a half-life of 8.0 days. How many...Ch. 19 - Rubidium-87 decays by -particle production to...Ch. 19 - Given the following information: Mass of proton =...Ch. 19 - Which of the following statement(s) is(are) true?...Ch. 19 - Naturally occurring uranium is composed mostly of...Ch. 19 - The curie (Ci) is a commonly used unit for...Ch. 19 - A 0.10-cm3 sample of a solution containing a...Ch. 19 - Zirconium is one of the few metals that retains...Ch. 19 - In addition to the process described in the text,...Ch. 19 - The most significant source of natural radiation...Ch. 19 - To determine the Ksp value of Hg2I2, a chemist...Ch. 19 - Estimate the temperature needed to achieve the...Ch. 19 - A reported synthesis of the transuranium element...Ch. 19 - Radioactive cobalt-60 is used to study defects in...

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