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. During the research that led to production of the two atomic bombs used against Japan in World War II, different mechanisms for obtaining a supercritical mass of fissionable material were investigated. In one type of bomb, what is essentially a gun was used to shoot one piece of fissionable material into a cavity containing another piece of fissionable material. In the second type of bomb, the fissionable material was surrounded with a high explosive that, when detonated, compressed the fissionable material into a smaller volume. Discuss what is meant by critical mass, and explain why the ability to achieve a critical mass is essential to sustaining a nuclear reaction.

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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

8th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285199030

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

8th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285199030
Chapter 19, Problem 93AP
Textbook Problem
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. During the research that led to production of the two atomic bombs used against Japan in World War II, different mechanisms for obtaining a supercritical mass of fissionable material were investigated. In one type of bomb, what is essentially a gun was used to shoot one piece of fissionable material into a cavity containing another piece of fissionable material. In the second type of bomb, the fissionable material was surrounded with a high explosive that, when detonated, compressed the fissionable material into a smaller volume. Discuss what is meant by critical mass, and explain why the ability to achieve a critical mass is essential to sustaining a nuclear reaction.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Interpret critical mass and its requirement for the process of reaction.

Concept Introduction:

The atom consist nucleus and the electron. The nucleus of an atom consist proton and neutron and the electron is revolving around the nucleus. Mass number of an atom is equal to the sum of proton and neutron. Atomic number is equal to the number of proton or in ground state it is also equal to the number of electron.

Explanation of Solution

Critical mass is the minimum mass of the reactant or nuclide required for its reaction for fission. A reactant is needed in critical amount such as limiting reagent so to proceed the reaction to get the yield of product...

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Chapter 19 Solutions

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation
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Ch. 19 - Why is the nucleus of an atom a great source of...Ch. 19 - Discuss what is meant by the term ‘critical mass.”...Ch. 19 - What makes fusion preferable over fission? What...Ch. 19 - Why is it difficult to determine the effects of...Ch. 19 - . What type of radioactive decay must occur for...Ch. 19 - Does the nucleus of an atom strongly affect its...Ch. 19 - How large is a typical atomic nucleus, and how...Ch. 19 - What does the atomic number of an atom represent?Ch. 19 - What does the mass number of a nucleus represent?Ch. 19 - What is meant by saying an element exists in...Ch. 19 - Using Z to represent the atomic number and A to...Ch. 19 - Write the nuclear symbol for an alpha particle.Ch. 19 - When an unstable nucleus produces an particle, by...Ch. 19 - When a nucleus emits a beta particle, by how many...Ch. 19 - . When a nucleus emits a neutron, does the atomic...Ch. 19 - . What is a decay series?Ch. 19 - . What does agamma rayrepresent? Is a ray a...Ch. 19 - . What is a positron? What are the mass number and...Ch. 19 - . What do we mean when we say a nucleus has...Ch. 19 - . Naturally occurring sulfur consists primarily...Ch. 19 - . Although naturally occurring potassium consists...Ch. 19 - . Naturally occurring magnesium consists primarily...Ch. 19 - . Consider the three isotopes of magnesium...Ch. 19 - . Give the nuclear symbol for each of the...Ch. 19 - . Which of the following nuclear processes results...Ch. 19 - . Complete each of the following nuclear equations...Ch. 19 - Complete each of the following nuclear equations...Ch. 19 - . Complete each of the following nuclear equations...Ch. 19 - Complete each of the following nuclear equations...Ch. 19 - . Each of the following nuclides is known to...Ch. 19 - . Each of the following nuclides is known to...Ch. 19 - . Each of the following nuclides is known to...Ch. 19 - . Each of the following nuclides is known to...Ch. 19 - . What does a nuclear transformation represent?...Ch. 19 - . What is meant by a nuclear bombardment process?...Ch. 19 - . Write a balanced nuclear equation showing the...Ch. 19 - . Write a balanced nuclear equation showing the...Ch. 19 - Describe the operation of a Geiger counter. How...Ch. 19 - . What is the half-life of a radioactive nucleus?...Ch. 19 - . What do we mean when we say that one radioactive...Ch. 19 - . Consider the isotopes of radium listed in Table...Ch. 19 - . The following isotopes (listed with their...Ch. 19 - . A list of several important radionuclides is...Ch. 19 - . Nitrogen- 13(N713) is a radionuclide that decays...Ch. 19 - . Cohah-62 (C2762o ) is a radionuclide with a...Ch. 19 - . The element krypton has several radioactive...Ch. 19 - . Technetium-99 has been used as a radiographic...Ch. 19 - . Describe in general terms how an archaeological...Ch. 19 - . How isC614 produced in the atmosphere? Write a...Ch. 19 - . In dating artifacts using carbon-14, an...Ch. 19 - . Why does an ancient wood or cloth artifact...Ch. 19 - . The thyroid gland is interesting in that it is...Ch. 19 - . The “Chemistry in Focus” segment PET, the Brain...Ch. 19 - . How do the forces that hold an atomic nucleus...Ch. 19 - . During nuclear ________, a large nucleus is...Ch. 19 - . How do the energies released by nuclear...Ch. 19 - . Write an equation for the fission ofU92235 by...Ch. 19 - What is a chain reaction How does a chain reaction...Ch. 19 - . What does it mean to say that fissionable...Ch. 19 - . Describe the purpose of each of the major...Ch. 19 - . Can a nuclear explosion lake place in a reactor?...Ch. 19 - 57. What is a meltdown and how can it occur? Most...Ch. 19 - Prob. 58QAPCh. 19 - . What is the nuclear fusion of small nuclei? How...Ch. 19 - . What are some reasons why no practical fusion...Ch. 19 - . What type of “fuel” could be used in a nuclear...Ch. 19 - . The sun radiates vast quantities of energy as a...Ch. 19 - . Although the energy transferred per event when a...Ch. 19 - . Explain the difference between somatic damage...Ch. 19 - . Describe the relative penetrating powers of...Ch. 19 - . Explain why, although gamma rays are far more...Ch. 19 - . How do the chemical properties of radioactive...Ch. 19 - . Although nuclear processes offer the potential...Ch. 19 - . The number of protons contained in a given...Ch. 19 - . A nucleus that spontaneously decomposes is said...Ch. 19 - . A(n) ______, when it is produced by a nucleus at...Ch. 19 - . In a nuclear equation, both the mass number and...Ch. 19 - . Production of a helium nucleus from a heavy atom...Ch. 19 - . The net effect of the production of a beta...Ch. 19 - . In addition to particles. many radioactive...Ch. 19 - . When a nuclide decomposes through a series of...Ch. 19 - . When a nuclide produces a beta particle, the...Ch. 19 - . When a nucleus undergoes ______, the mass number...Ch. 19 - . Machines that increase the speed of species used...Ch. 19 - . The elements with atomic numbers of 93 or...Ch. 19 - . A _________ counter contains argon gas, which is...Ch. 19 - . The time required for half of an original sample...Ch. 19 - . The radioactive nuclide that has been used in...Ch. 19 - . _________ are radioactive substances that...Ch. 19 - . Combining Iwo small nuclei to form a larger...Ch. 19 - . A self-sustaining nuclear process, in which the...Ch. 19 - . The most common type of nuclear reactor uses the...Ch. 19 - . A certain nuclide has a half-life of 45 years....Ch. 19 - . The decay series from uranium-238 to Icad-206 is...Ch. 19 - . Supply the missing particle, and state the type...Ch. 19 - . Each of the following isotopes has been used...Ch. 19 - . The fission ofU92235 releases2.11013 joules per...Ch. 19 - . During the research that led to production of...Ch. 19 - . Zirconium consists of five primary isotopes, of...Ch. 19 - . The element zinc in nature consists of five...Ch. 19 - . Aluminum exists in several isotopic forms,...Ch. 19 - . Complete each of the following nuclear equations...Ch. 19 - . How many of the following statements regarding...Ch. 19 - . Write a balanced nuclear equation for the...Ch. 19 - . Write a nuclear equation showing the bombardment...Ch. 19 - . How haveI53131 andT81201l been used in medical...Ch. 19 - . The most common reaction used in breeder...Ch. 19 - . Each of the following nuclides is known to...Ch. 19 - . Complete the following table with the nuclear...Ch. 19 - . Which of the following nuclear equations...Ch. 19 - . A certain radioactive nuclide has a half-life of...Ch. 19 - . Which of the following statement(s) is(are)true?...

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