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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 21.2, Problem 3CYU
Textbook Problem
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Identify a compound or ion of a second-period element that has a formula and Lewis structure analogous to each of the following:

  1. (a) PH4+
  2. (b) S22−
  3. (c) P2H4
  4. (d) PF3

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The compound or ion of a second period element, that has formula and lewis structure analogous to given formula PH4+  has to be predicted.

Concept introduction: The elements belonging to the same group of periodic table have same number of electrons in their valence shell. Thus, their physical and chemical properties are also similar.

These elements can exist in similar oxidation state due to same number of valence electrons in the outermost shell. Hence, the elements of same group form compounds with same formula.

If two elements belongs to nA group of periodic table, then both the elements have +n as highest oxidation number. This is because the highest oxidation number is equal to the group number. So both the elements of same group  have same oxidation number and forms analogous compound of the same chemical formula. The other possible oxidation numbers apart from the highest oxidation number are as per the number of valence electrons in the outermost shell.

However, the lighter elements of the group do not expand their octet while the heavier elements can expand their octet and form compounds with different oxidation numbers. So if the elements belong to group 5A of periodic table then the lighter element only has oxidation number of +3, which is equal to number of electrons in outermost shell. But the heavier element can have both oxidation number of +3 and +5.

So, the same number of valence electrons in outermost shell of the elements in same group is responsible for the similar chemical properties of these elements. Thus they also form compounds with same formula.

Explanation of Solution

Phosphorous belongs to the group 5A of the periodic table. The second period element of the group is Nitrogen. Both phosphorous and nitrogen have three valence electrons in their outermost shell.

The electronic configuration of Phosphorous is: 1s22s22p63s23p3

The electronic configuration of Nitr

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The compound or ion of a second period element, that has formula and lewis structure analogous to given formula S22  has to be predicted.

Concept introduction: The elements belonging to the same group of periodic table have same number of electrons in their valence shell. Thus, their physical and chemical properties are also similar.

These elements can exist in similar oxidation state due to same number of valence electrons in the outermost shell. Hence, the elements of same group form compounds with same formula.

If two elements belongs to nA group of periodic table, then both the elements have +n as highest oxidation number. This is because the highest oxidation number is equal to the group number. So both the elements of same group  have same oxidation number and forms analogous compound of the same chemical formula. The other possible oxidation numbers apart from the highest oxidation number are as per the number of valence electrons in the outermost shell.

However, the lighter elements of the group do not expand their octet while the heavier elements can expand their octet and form compounds with different oxidation numbers. So if the elements belong to group 5A of periodic table then the lighter element only has oxidation number of +3, which is equal to number of electrons in outermost shell. But the heavier element can have both oxidation number of +3 and +5.

So, the same number of valence electrons in outermost shell of the elements in same group is responsible for the similar chemical properties of these elements. Thus they also form compounds with same formula.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The compound or ion of a second period element, that has formula and lewis structure analogous to given formula P2H4  has to be predicted.

Concept introduction: The elements belonging to the same group of periodic table have same number of electrons in their valence shell. Thus, their physical and chemical properties are also similar.

These elements can exist in similar oxidation state due to same number of valence electrons in the outermost shell. Hence, the elements of same group form compounds with same formula.

If two elements belongs to nA group of periodic table, then both the elements have +n as highest oxidation number. This is because the highest oxidation number is equal to the group number. So both the elements of same group  have same oxidation number and forms analogous compound of the same chemical formula. The other possible oxidation numbers apart from the highest oxidation number are as per the number of valence electrons in the outermost shell.

However, the lighter elements of the group do not expand their octet while the heavier elements can expand their octet and form compounds with different oxidation numbers. So if the elements belong to group 5A of periodic table then the lighter element only has oxidation number of +3, which is equal to number of electrons in outermost shell. But the heavier element can have both oxidation number of +3 and +5.

So, the same number of valence electrons in outermost shell of the elements in same group is responsible for the similar chemical properties of these elements. Thus they also form compounds with same formula.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The compound or ion of a second period element, that has formula and lewis structure analogous to given formula PF3  has to be predicted.

Concept introduction: The elements belonging to the same group of periodic table have same number of electrons in their valence shell. Thus, their physical and chemical properties are also similar.

These elements can exist in similar oxidation state due to same number of valence electrons in the outermost shell. Hence, the elements of same group form compounds with same formula.

If two elements belongs to nA group of periodic table, then both the elements have +n as highest oxidation number. This is because the highest oxidation number is equal to the group number. So both the elements of same group  have same oxidation number and forms analogous compound of the same chemical formula. The other possible oxidation numbers apart from the highest oxidation number are as per the number of valence electrons in the outermost shell.

However, the lighter elements of the group do not expand their octet while the heavier elements can expand their octet and form compounds with different oxidation numbers. So if the elements belong to group 5A of periodic table then the lighter element only has oxidation number of +3, which is equal to number of electrons in outermost shell. But the heavier element can have both oxidation number of +3 and +5.

So, the same number of valence electrons in outermost shell of the elements in same group is responsible for the similar chemical properties of these elements. Thus they also form compounds with same formula.

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Chapter 21 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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Ch. 21.8 - 4. A large, 12 107 L, aquarium contains 1.7 104...Ch. 21.8 - 3. What is the oxidation state of phosphorus in...Ch. 21.11 - 1. Use electronegativity values (⊲ Figure 8.10) to...Ch. 21.11 - 2. High boiling points are one characteristic of...Ch. 21 - Give examples of two basic oxides. Write equations...Ch. 21 - Give examples of two acidic oxides. Write...Ch. 21 - Give the name and symbol of each element having...Ch. 21 - Give symbols and names for four monatomic ions...Ch. 21 - Select one of the alkali metals, and write a...Ch. 21 - Select one of the alkaline earth metals and write...Ch. 21 - For the product of the reaction you selected in...Ch. 21 - For the product of the reaction you selected in...Ch. 21 - Would you expect to find calcium occurring...Ch. 21 - Which of the first 10 elements in the periodic...Ch. 21 - Place the following oxides in order of increasing...Ch. 21 - Place the following oxides in order of increasing...Ch. 21 - Complete and balance the equations for the...Ch. 21 - Complete and balance the equations for the...Ch. 21 - Write balanced chemical dilutions for the reaction...Ch. 21 - Write an equation for the reaction of potassium...Ch. 21 - Write a balanced chemical equation for the...Ch. 21 - Using data in Appendix L, calculate rH, rG, and rS...Ch. 21 - A method recently suggested for the preparation of...Ch. 21 - Compare the mass of H2 expected from the reaction...Ch. 21 - Write equations for the reaction of sodium with...Ch. 21 - Write balanced equations for the reaction of...Ch. 21 - The electrolysis of aqueous NaCl gives NaOH, Cl2,...Ch. 21 - (a) Write equations for the half-reactions that...Ch. 21 - When magnesium bums in air, it forms both an oxide...Ch. 21 - Calcium reacts with hydrogen gas at 300400 C to...Ch. 21 - Name three uses of limestone. Write a balanced...Ch. 21 - Explain what is meant by hard water. What causes...Ch. 21 - Calcium oxide, CaO, is used to remove SO2 from...Ch. 21 - Ca(OH)2 has a Ksp of 5.5 105, whereas Ksp for...Ch. 21 - Draw a possible structure for the cyclic anion in...Ch. 21 - The boron trihalides (except BF3) hydrolyze...Ch. 21 - When boron hydrides burn in air, the reactions are...Ch. 21 - Diborane can be prepared by the reaction of NaBH4...Ch. 21 - Write balanced equations for the reactions of...Ch. 21 - (a) Write a balanced equation for the reaction of...Ch. 21 - Aluminum dissolves readily in hot aqueous NaOH to...Ch. 21 - Alumina, Al2O3, is amphoteric. Among examples of...Ch. 21 - Aluminum sulfate is the most commercially...Ch. 21 - Aerated concrete bricks are widely used building...Ch. 21 - Describe the structure of pyroxenes (see page...Ch. 21 - Describe how ultrapure silicon can be produced...Ch. 21 - Silicate structures: Draw a structure, and give...Ch. 21 - Silicates often have chain, ribbon, cyclic, or...Ch. 21 - Consult the data in Appendix L. Are any of the...Ch. 21 - Use data in Appendix L to calculate the enthalpy...Ch. 21 - Use data in Appendix L to calculate the enthalpy...Ch. 21 - The overall reaction involved in the industrial...Ch. 21 - A major use of hydrazine, N2H4, is in steam...Ch. 21 - Before hydrazine came into use to remove dissolved...Ch. 21 - Review the structure of phosphorous acid in Table...Ch. 21 - Unlike carbon, which can form extended chains of...Ch. 21 - In the contact process for making sulfuric acid,...Ch. 21 - A sulfuric acid plant produces an enormous amount...Ch. 21 - Sulfur forms anionic chains of S atoms called...Ch. 21 - Sulfur forms a range of compounds with fluorine....Ch. 21 - The halogen oxides and oxoanions are good...Ch. 21 - The hypohalite ions, XO, are the anions of weak...Ch. 21 - Bromine is obtained from brine wells. The process...Ch. 21 - To prepare chlorine from chloride ion a strong...Ch. 21 - If an electrolytic cell for producing F2 (Figure...Ch. 21 - Halogens combine with one another to produce...Ch. 21 - The standard enthalpy of formation of XeF4 is 218...Ch. 21 - Draw the Lewis electron dot structure for XeO3F2....Ch. 21 - Argon is present in dry air to the extent of 0.93%...Ch. 21 - The reaction of XeF6 with water gives a yellow...Ch. 21 - For each of the third-period elements (Na through...Ch. 21 - Consider the chemistries of C, Si, Ge, and Sn. (a)...Ch. 21 - Consider the chemistries of the elements...Ch. 21 - When BCl3 gas is passed through an electric...Ch. 21 - Complete and balance the following equations. (a)...Ch. 21 - (a) Heating barium oxide in pure oxygen gives...Ch. 21 - Worldwide production of silicon carbide, SiC, is...Ch. 21 - To store 2.88 kg of gasoline with an energy...Ch. 21 - Using data in Appendix L, calculate rG values for...Ch. 21 - Ammonium perchlorate is used as the oxidizer in...Ch. 21 - Metals react with hydrogen halides (such as HCl)...Ch. 21 - Halogens form polyhalide ions. Sketch Lewis...Ch. 21 - The standard enthalpy of formation of OF2 gas is +...Ch. 21 - Calcium fluoride can be used in the fluoridation...Ch. 21 - The steering rockets in space vehicles use N2O4...Ch. 21 - Use fH data in Appendix L to calculate the...Ch. 21 - Phosphorus forms an extensive series of oxoanions....Ch. 21 - A Boron and hydrogen form an extensive family of...Ch. 21 - In 1774, C. Scheele obtained a gas by reacting...Ch. 21 - What current must be used in a Downs cell...Ch. 21 - The chemistry of gallium: (a) Gallium hydroxide,...Ch. 21 - Silicon-oxygen rings are a common structural...Ch. 21 - Using enthalpy of formation data in Appendix L,...Ch. 21 - Metal sulfides roasted in air produce metal...Ch. 21 - Metals generally react with hydrogen halides to...Ch. 21 - One material needed to make silicones is...Ch. 21 - Sodium borohydride, NaBH4, reduces many metal ions...Ch. 21 - A common analytical method for hydrazine involves...Ch. 21 - When 1.00 g of a white solid A is strongly heated,...Ch. 21 - In 1937, R. Schwartz and M. Schmiesser prepared a...Ch. 21 - A mixture of PC15 (12.41 g) and excess NH4Cl was...Ch. 21 - Dinitrogen trioxide, N2O3, has the structure shown...Ch. 21 - The density of lead is 11.350 g/cm3, and the metal...Ch. 21 - You have a 1.0-L flask that contains a mixture of...Ch. 21 - The boron atom in boric acid, B(OH)3, is bonded to...Ch. 21 - How would you extinguish a sodium fire in the...Ch. 21 - Tin(IV) oxide, cassiterite, is the main ore of...Ch. 21 - You are given a stoppered flask that contains...Ch. 21 - The structure of nitric acid is illustrated on...Ch. 21 - 107. Assume an electrolysis cell that produces...Ch. 21 - Sodium metal is produced by electrolysis of molten...Ch. 21 - The reduction potentials for the Croup 3A metals,...Ch. 21 - (a) Magnesium is obtained from seawater. If the...Ch. 21 - Comparing the chemistry of carbon and silicon. (a)...Ch. 21 - Boron nitride, BN, has the same solid state...Ch. 21 - Xenon trioxide, XeO3, reacts with aqueous base to...

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